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Erin Benefiel, PA-C, R.D.

Benefiel

Erin Benefiel was born and raised in Washington DC.  She holds a Bachelor of Science in Biology and Dietetics from James Madison University. She has been certified as a Registered Dietitian since 2014 and worked as a Clinical Nutrition Manager in Jefferson City, Missouri. She then received her Master of Medical Science in Physician Assistant Studies from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in 2018, graduating with high honors.  She knew early on that she wanted to specialize in Gastroenterology.

Erin lives in Memphis with her boyfriend Chris and 2 dogs. She is a fan of the UT Vols and Memphis Grizzlies, and enjoys outdoor activities, reading, baking, and spending time with her family and friends.

Patience Whitten, D.N.P., F.N.P.

Whitten

Patience Whitten was born and raised in Memphis, TN.  She holds a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Belmont University and a Doctorate of Nursing Practice in family practice from Union University.  She was inducted into the Sigma Theta Tau Nursing Honor Society, where she earned the International Clinical Competence Award for the Omicron Phi chapter. She lived and worked overseas for a year in Sofia, Bulgaria with Mission To the World. She then worked as a registered nurse in pediatric oncology at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital for over 7 years before joining Gastro One.

Patience lives in Memphis and is an active member of Second Presbyterian Church. She enjoys running, road biking, and spending time with her family and friends. She also enjoys taking any chance she can to travel internationally.

Tami Dotson, F.N.P.

dotson

Tami Dotson was born and raised in Jackson, TN.  She attended college on a basketball scholarship for two years before deciding to pursue a Nursing degree. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the Baptist College of Health Services, and a Master of Science in Nursing, Family Nurse Practitioner from the University of Memphis. She was inducted into the Sigma Theta Tau international society for Nursing while at Baptist College of Health Sciences, and practiced as a cardiac nurse for 7 years before deciding to pursue her FNP. Tami is a member of American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

Tami lives in Memphis and enjoys running, working out, hiking, and spending time with her family and friends.

Stefanie G. Morris, F.N.P.

morris

Stefanie Morris was born and raised in Germantown, TN.  She holds a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and Biology from the University of Mississippi, and a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. She was inducted into the Sigma Theta Tau Nursing Honor Society, and she was a recipient of the Baptist Memorial Health Care Grant Scholarship and the Josephine Circle Scholarship. As a registered nurse, she worked for 10 years in a cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary transplant intensive care unit. She then received a Master of Science in Nursing, Family Nurse Practitioner from the University of Memphis.  

Stefanie lives in Collierville with her husband Matt and their two children.  She is a fan of the Memphis Tigers and the Ole Miss Rebels, and enjoys skiing, beach trips, and spending time with her family.

Amanda Berry, A.G.P.C.N.P.-B.C., C.C.R.C.

 

Amanda graduated nursing school in 2002 from Northwest Community College in Senatobia, Mississippi. Amanda worked in an Intensive Care Unit for 11 years and in 2012 she joined Gastro One as a Clinical Research Coordinator. Amanda received her Masters of Science in Nursing and Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practicioner degrees from the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Mississippi in 2016. While receiving her education she was awarded the Daniel Hale Williams Research Scholarship.

Amanda currently serves as a sub-investigator on the research studies that Gastro One's Research Department conducts. She is a member of the Mississippi Association of Nurse Practitioners and the Association of Clinical Research Professionals. She is also a certified Clinical Research Coordinator.

Blog


  • Take Steps for the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation (Events) 09-01-2017

    Please join us as we Take Steps for the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation on September 17, 2017! Each step we take brings us closer to a cure for digestive diseases like Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis. Please help our team support the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation by donating toward our fundraising goal for this year’s Take Steps walk. Your donation will directly impact critical research projects, as well groundbreaking patient programs like Camp Oasis, a summer camp just for kids with Crohn’s and colitis. You can also join us as a member of our team — we’d love to have you! Be a part of the nation's largest event supporting vital research, treatment, and life-enriching programs for people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our walk includes food, music, and family activities that brings people from all across the community to join together in fun, solidarity, and purpose. The more money we raise, the closer we will be to making life more manageable for patients who live with these diseases every day. Please join our team or donate to our efforts to support us in finding cures!

  • Meet Dr. Joshua French! (Practice News) 08-01-2017

    Gastro One is proud to introduce a new physician to our practice, Dr. Joshua French! Dr. French is a native of East Tennessee, and spent most of his youth in the Knoxville area. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemistry from Maryville College and his M.D. from the University of Tennessee College of Medicine. He completed his residency at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, as well as fellowships at Wake Forest in Gastroenterology and at the University of North Carolina in Advanced Endoscopy. He is a member of the American College of Physicians, the American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Dr. French lives in Memphis with his wife Dottie and their two children.

  • Meet Dr. Rajesh Ramachandran! (Practice News) 09-01-2016

    Gastro One is proud to introduce a new physician to our practice, Dr. Rajesh Ramachandran! After completing his B.A. in Natural Sciences from Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Ramachandran completed his MD from St. George’s University in 2008 with honors.  He completed his Internal Medicine residency at SUNY Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, NY where he was selected as intern of the year.  Dr. Ramachandran subsequently service chief resident for one year.  He remained at SUNY Downstate to complete a three year gastroenterology and hepatology fellowship.  During this time he also served as Chief Gastroenterology Fellow.  This was followed by an additional year of training at Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, NY, where Dr. Ramachandran completed advanced endoscopy training in EUS (endoscopic ultrasound), ECRP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), luminal stenting, and esophageal dilation. Dr. Ramachandran lives in Memphis with his wife, a pediatric cardiologist, and their two children.  He enjoys reading, tennis, and traveling in his spare time.  He is a native of Delaware, and his parents and extended family hail from Kerala, India where he maintains close family ties.

The Mid-South's First IBD Care Center is Now Open!

IBD One, our comprehensive Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, officially began seeing patients on July 10, 2017. This center is the first of its kind in the Mid-South area, and is currently operating in 2 locations: 8000 Wolf River Blvd., Germantown, TN, and 1325 Eastmoreland Ave., #435, Memphis, TN. IBD One, which specializes in treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is part of Gastro One. The diseases treated at IBD One are primarily Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. This new center provides a progressive, comprehensive treatment approach to individuals previously diagnosed with these diseases, serves as an urgent care facility for IBD, and also provides consultative services for complicated patients. Patients receive personalized treatments, new strategies in disease management/monitoring and opportunities to participate in the latest clinical trials of advanced treatments. The goal is to provide patients with a better quality of life and move towards control and treatments that solve the problem. There is an emphasis on standardizing preventative measures related to IBD, learning to recognize flares early on in their course, and intervening early in the presentation of the disease or flare in a multidisciplinary approach.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves chronic inflammation of all or part of the digestive tract and affects over 1.6 million Americans. IBD primarily includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Both usually involve severe diarrhea, pain, fatigue and weight loss.  IBD can be debilitating and sometimes leads to life-threatening complications. Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum.  Crohn's disease is an IBD that causes inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract.  In Crohn's disease, inflammation often spreads deep into affected tissues. The inflammation can involve different areas of the digestive tract — the large intestine, small intestine or both. Both diseases are chronic and usually lifelong and vary in intensity and management responses.  Though many patients have long periods of relative freedom form symptoms, both diseases are characterized by flares (relapses) that can range from very mild to very serious and life threatening. 

"This clinic is designed to help patients control their IBD and improve their quality of life.” says Richard S. Aycock, M.D., FACG.  "This specialty clinic brings together dedicated gastroenterologists, pathologists, nurses, and researchers with direct access to imaging and endoscopic facilities, dietitians, pain management specialists, pharmaceutical experts and surgeons.  The clinic offers long term care and a much needed urgent care facility for IBD patients as well as consultative services.  It is also central in helping children with IBD transition to management of the disease in adulthood.”

For more information about IBD One, contact our Nurse Navigator at 901-260-6796.

Rajesh Ramachandran, M.D.

Dr. Ramachandran joined Gastro One in 2016. After completing his B.A. in Natural Sciences from Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Ramachandran completed his MD from St. George's University in 2008 with honors. He completed his internal medicine residency at SUNY Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, NY where he was selected as intern of the year. Dr. Ramachandran subsequently served as Chief Resident for one year. He remained at SUNY Downstate to complete a three year gastroenterology and hepatology fellowship. During this time he also served as Chief Gastroenterology Fellow. This was followed by an additional year of training at Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, NY, where Dr. Ramachandran completed advanced endoscopy training in EUS (endoscopic ultrasound), ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), luminal stenting, and esophageal dilation.

Dr. Ramachandran has presented multiple abstracts at national meetings, and has published in the fields of basic pancreatic cancer research and inflammatory bowel disease. He is board certified in Internal Medicine (2011) and Gastroenterology (2015). He is a member of American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), and the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA).

Dr. Ramachandran lives in Memphis with his wife, a pediatric cardiologist, and their two children. He enjoys reading, tennis, and traveling in his spare time. He is a native of Delaware, and his parents and extended family hail from Kerala, India where he maintains close family ties.

Providers by Primary Location

Click here to list alphabetically

Germantown Office (8000 Wolf River Blvd)

8000 Wolf River Blvd, Suite 200
Germantown, Tennessee 38138

901-747-3630


Bartlett Office

3350 N. Germantown Rd.
Bartlett, Tennessee 38133

901-377-2111


DeSoto Office

7668B Airways Blvd.
Southaven, Mississippi 38671

MS: 662-349-6950
TN: 901-766-9490


Germantown Office (Wolf Park Drive)

1324 Wolf Park Dr.
Germantown, Tennessee 38138

901-755-9110


Germantown Office (Centre Oak Way)

2999 Centre Oak Way
Germantown, Tennessee 38138

901-684-5500


Midtown Office

1325 Eastmoreland
Suite 435
Memphis, Tennessee, 38104

901-377-2111


Atoka Office

76 Capital Way #E
Atoka, TN 38004

901-755-9110


GI Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy Center (Germantown, TN)

 

1310 Wolf Park Dr.
Germantown, Tennessee 38138

901-624-5151


GI Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy Center (Southaven, MS)

 

7668B Airways Blvd.
Southaven, Mississippi 38671

901-766-9490


GI Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy Center (Germantown, TN)

 

8000 Wolf River Blvd, Suite 105
Germantown, Tennessee 38138

901-747-3630

Info Center

Please use the links below to browse our patient resources.

GI Health Resources

GI Testing Options

Recognizing Emergencies

Cancer Screening

Research

GI Glossary

The information provided by Gastro One on this site or by any links to this site is for educational and entertainment purposes only and should not be interpreted as a recommendation for a specific treatment plan, product, course of action or medical or healthcare provider.

Gastro One's web site does not provide specific medical advice and does not endorse any medical or professional service obtained through information provided on this site or any links to this site.

Use of Gastro One's web site does not replace medical consultations with a qualified health or medical professional to meet the health and medical needs of you or a loved one.

You exercise your own judgment when purchasing any product or selecting a physician through any site or service linked to this web site. In addition, while Gastro One frequently updates its contents, medical information changes rapidly and therefore, some information may be out of date, and/or contain inaccuracies or typographical errors.

Please check with a physician or health professional if you suspect you are ill. Please review these Terms of Use before using this Web site and from time to time since the Terms of Use may be updated or changed periodically.

  1. Agreement. gastro1.com is an Internet-based on-line information and communication service. It is sometimes referred to in this Agreement as the Service. You agree to be bound by the terms and conditions of this Agreement, which includes the Gastro One Privacy Policy linked to this Agreement. Gastro One may modify this Agreement at any time, and such modification shall be effective 30 days after either posting of the modified Agreement or notifying you. You agree to review this Agreement periodically to ensure that you are aware of any modifications. Your continued access or use of Gastro One's web site after the modifications have become effective shall be deemed your conclusive acceptance of the modified Agreement.
  2. License. We hereby grant you the right to view and use this web site subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement. You may download and/or print a copy of information provided in this web site for your personal use only. Permission to reprint or electronically reproduce any document or graphic in whole or in part for any other purpose is expressly prohibited, unless prior written consent is obtained from the respective copyright holder(s).
  3. Privacy. We respect your personal privacy. Please see our Privacy Policy, which is incorporated by reference into this Agreement, for the details of our commitment.
  4. Links. Gastro One's web site may contain links to or advertisements for web sites operated by other parties. The links or advertisements are provided for your convenience only. Neither we nor our suppliers control such web sites and we are not responsible for the content and performance of these sites or for your transactions with them. Our inclusion of links to or advertisements for such web sites does not imply any endorsement of the material on such web sites or any association with their operators. Gastro One does not in any way operate, control or endorse any information, products or services provided by third parties through the Internet. See our Privacy Policy regarding information which may be transferred to third parties by using these links or advertisements.
  5. Warranty Disclaimer. In our content areas this information is provided for educational and entertainment purposes only and should not be interpreted as a recommendation for a specific treatment plan, product or course of action. The content areas should not be used for specific medical advice. We and our suppliers assume no responsibility for how you use the information provided through this Service. You should always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. However, in the event you are a patient of the Gastro One and currently being cared for by a Gastro One care provider and have access to our Personal Health Pages, you can rely on the personal medical advice given to you through your Personal Health Page by our providers. (See our privacy Policy to understand how we will use your personal medical information.) On the Personal Health Pages, you will be able to interact with Gastro One employees.
  6. The Information on this Site is Provided "As Is". We and our suppliers make no representations or endorsement about the suitability for any purpose of products and services available through this Service. We and our suppliers do not guarantee the timeliness, validity, completeness or accuracy of information made available to you for any particular purpose. We and our suppliers disclaim all warranties and conditions, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title, and non-infringement, with regard to the products, services and information contained on or made available through this Service, including but not limited to the availability of this Service, lack of viruses, worms, Trojan horses or other code that manifest contaminating or destructive properties, or any failure to provide the service. Although our suppliers or we may update the content on this Service from time to time, please note that medical information changes rapidly. Therefore, some of the information may be out of date and/or may contain inaccuracies or typographical errors.
  7. Indemnification. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Gastro One, its officers, directors, employees, agents, information providers, partners, advertisers and suppliers from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorney's fees, resulting from any violation of this agreement or any activity related to your account (including infringement of third parties' worldwide intellectual property rights or negligent or wrongful conduct) by you or any other person accessing gastro1.com using your service account.
  8. Waiver, Release and Limitation of Liability. You agree that neither Gastro One, nor its officers, directors, employees, agents, information providers, partners, advertisers or suppliers shall have any liability to you under any theory of liability or indemnity in connection with your use of gastro1.com. You hereby release and forever waive any and all claims you may have against Gastro One, its officers, directors, employees, agents, information providers or suppliers (including but not limited to claims based upon the negligence of Gastro One, its officers, directors, employees, agents, information providers, partners, advertisers or suppliers) for losses or damages you sustain in connection with your use of gastro1.com. Notwithstanding the foregoing paragraph, the total liability of gastro1.com, its officers, directors, employees, agents, information providers, partners, advertisers and suppliers, if any, for losses or damages shall not exceed the fees paid by the user for the particular information or service provided. In no event shall Gastro One, its officers, directors, employees, agents, information providers, partners, advertisers or suppliers be liable to you for any losses or damages other than the amount referred to above. All other damages, direct or indirect, special, incidental, consequential or punitive arising from any use of the information or other parts of gastro1.com are hereby excluded even if Gastro One, its officers, directors, employees, agents, information providers, partners, advertisers or suppliers have been advised of the possibility of such damages. Neither Gastro One, nor any of its affiliates, directors, officers or employees, nor any third party vendor will be liable or have any responsibility of any kind for any loss or damage that you incur in the event of any failure or interruption of this site, or resulting from the act or omission of any other party involved in making this site or the data contained therein available to you, or from any other cause relating to your access to or your inability to access the site or these materials, whether or not the circumstances giving rise to such cause may have been within the control of Gastro One or of any vendor providing software or services support.
  9. Third Party Rights. The provisions of paragraphs 8 (Indemnification) and 9 (Waiver, Release and Limitation of Liability) are for the benefit of Gastro One and its officers, directors, employees, agents, licensors, suppliers, and information providers. Each of these individuals or entities shall have the right to assert and enforce those provisions directly against you on its own behalf.
  10. User Representations. You represent and warrant that you are at least 18 years of age and that you possess the legal right and ability to enter into this Agreement and to use Gastro One in accordance with this Agreement. You agree to be financially responsible for your use of gastro1.com (as well as for use of your account by others, including minors living with you) and to comply with your responsibilities and obligations as stated in this Agreement.
  11. Miscellaneous. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Tennessee, without regarding provisions relating to conflicts of law. You agree that any legal action or proceeding between Gastro One and you for any purpose concerning this Agreement or the parties' obligations under this Agreement shall be brought exclusively in a court of competent jurisdiction. Any cause of action or claim you may have with respect to Gastro One must be commenced within one (1) year after the claim or cause of action arises.
  12. Notice. Gastro One may deliver notice to you under this Agreement by means of electronic mail, a general notice on gastro1.com or by written communication delivered by first class U.S. mail to your address on record in Gastro One account information, if any. You may give notice to Gastro One at any time by letter delivered by first class postage prepaid U.S. mail or overnight courier.
  13. Severability. The provisions of this Agreement are severable, and in the event any provision hereof is determined to be invalid or unenforceable, such invalidity or unenforceability shall not in any way affect the validity or enforceability of the remaining provisions.

Gastro One

G.I. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC CENTER, L.L.C.
Notice of Privacy Practices for protected Health Information
This notice describes how medical information about you may be used and disclosed and how you can get access to this information. Please review it carefully!

The office is permitted by federal privacy laws to make uses and disclosures of your health information for purposes of treatment, payment, and health care operations. Protected health information is the information we create and obtain in providing our services to you. Such information may include documenting your symptoms, examination, diagnoses, treatment, test results, and applying for future care or treatment. It also includes billing documents for those services.

Examples of uses of your health information for treatment purposes are:

  • A nurse obtains treatment information about you and records it in a health record.
  • During the course of your treatment, the physician determines he/she will need to consult with another specialist in the area. He/she will share the information with such specialist and obtain his/her input.

Example of use of your health information for payment purposes:

  • We submit requests for payment to your health insurance company. The health insurance company or business associate helping us obtain payment requests information from us regarding your medical care. We will provide information to them about you and the care given.

Example of Use of Your Information for Health Care Operations:

  • We may obtain services from business associates such as quality assessment, quality improvement, outcome evaluation, protocol and clinical guidelines development, training programs, credentialing, medical review, legal services, and insurance. We will share information about you with such business associates as necessary to obtain these services.

Your Health Information Rights
The health and billing records we maintain are the physical property of Gastro One. You have the following rights with respect to your Protected Health Information:

  • To request a restriction on certain uses and disclosures of your health information by delivering the request in writing to our office. We are not required to grant the request but we will comply with any request granted;
  • To obtain a paper copy of the Notice of Privacy Practices for Protected Health Information ("Notice") by making a request at our office;
  • To inspect and copy your health record and billing record you may exercise this right by delivering the request in writing to our office using the form we provide to you upon request; appeal a denial of access to your protected health information except in certain circumstances;
  • To request that your health care record be amended to correct incomplete or incorrect information by delivering a written request to our office using the form we provide to you upon request. (The physician or other health care provider is not required to make such amendments); you may file a statement of disagreement if your amendment is denied, and require that the request for amendment and any denial be attached in all future disclosures of your protected health information;
  • To receive an accounting of disclosures of your health information as required to be maintained by law by delivering a written request to our office using the form we provide to you upon request. An accounting will not include internal uses of information for treatment, payment, or operations, disclosures made to you or made at your request, or disclosures made to family members or friends in the course of providing care;
  • To confidential communication by requesting that communication of your health information be made by alternative means or at an alternative location by delivering the request in writing to our office using the form we give you upon request; and,
  • If you want to exercise any of the above rights, please contact the supervisor of your respective office site or GCMS Privacy Officer, Linda Murley, RN at 1310 Wolf Park Dr Germantown, TN 38138 during normal hours. All requests should be in writing. They will provide you with assistance on the steps to take to exercise your rights.

Our Responsibilities
The office is required to:

  • Maintain the privacy of your health information, as required by law;
  • Provide you with a notice as to our duties and privacy practices as to the information we collect and maintain about you;
  • Abide by the terms of this Notice;
  • Notify you if we cannot accommodate a requested restriction or request; and
  • Accommodate your reasonable requests regarding methods to communicate health information with you.
  • Accommodate your request for an accounting of disclosures.

We reserve the right to amend, change, or eliminate provisions in our privacy practices and access practices and to enact new provisions regarding the protected health information we maintain. If our information practices change, we will amend our Notice. You are entitled to receive a revised copy of the Notice by calling and requesting a copy of our Notice or by visiting any of our practice sites and picking up a copy.

To Request Information or File a Complaint
If you have questions, would like additional information, or want to report a problem regarding the handling of your information, you may contact the supervisor for your respective treatment site or Gastro One Privacy Officer, Linda Murley, RN @ 901-624-5151.

Additionally, if you believe your privacy rights have been violated, you may file a written complaint with our office by delivering the written complaint to Gastro One Privacy Officer, Linda Murley, RN at 1310 Wolf Park Dr Germantown, TN 38138. You may also file a complaint by mailing or e-mailing it to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20201, (202) 619-0257 or Toll Free: -877-696-6775 www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/

We cannot, and will not, require you to waive the right to file a complaint with the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) as a condition of receiving treatment from the office. We cannot, and will not, retaliate against you for filing a complaint with the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

Following is a List of Other Uses and Disclosures Allowed by the Privacy Rule
Patient Contact

  • We may contact you to provide you with appointment reminders, with information about treatment alternatives, or with information about other health-related benefits and services that may be of interest to you. We may contact you as part of a fund raising effort.
  • If we are unable to reach you by telephone, we will exercise our professional judgment with leaving results of tests and /or procedures on your answering machine.
  • Our office will supply you with a personal medical information identification number. Please keep it confidential and readily available. When you call our office you will need your personal identification number. Medical information will only be discussed, after we have recognized your personal identification number.

Notification Opportunity to Agree or Object

  • Unless you object we may use or disclose your protected health information to notify, or assist in notifying, a family member, personal representative, or other person responsible for your care, about your location, and about your general condition, or your death.
  • Communication with Family- If you do not object or in an emergency, using our best judgment, we may disclose to a family member, other relative, close personal friend, or any other person you identify, health information relevant to that person's involvement in your care or in payment for such care.
  • We may use and disclose your protected health information to assist in disaster relief efforts.
  • Opportunity to Agree or Object Not Required

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIVITIES

  • Controlling Disease - As required by law, we may disclose your protected health information to public health or legal authorities charged with preventing or controlling disease, injury, or disability.
  • Abuse & Neglect - We will disclose protected health information to public authorities as required by law to report abuse or neglect. We may disclose protected health information to governmental authorities to the extent the disclosure is authorized by statue or regulation and if in the exercise of professional judgment, the doctor believes the disclosure is necessary to prevent serious harm to the individual or other potential victims.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - We may disclose to the FDA your protected health information relating to adverse events with respect to food, supplements, products and product defects, or post-marketing surveillance information to enable product recalls, repairs, or replacements.
  • With medical surveillance or the evaluation of whether an individual has a work related injury or illness, Gastro One may disclose protected health information pertaining to a work related injury or illness to the employer if the employer needs the findings in order to comply with OSHA regulations.

OVERSIGHT AGENCIES
Federal law allows us to release your protected health information to appropriate health oversight agencies or for health oversight activities to include audits, civil, administrative or criminal investigations: inspections; licensures or disciplinary actions, and for similar reasons related to the administration of healthcare.

JUDICIAL/ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS
We may disclose your protected health information in the course of any judicial or administrative proceeding as allowed or required by law, with your consent, or as directed by a proper court order or administrative tribunal, provided that only the protected health information released is expressly authorized by such order, or in response to a subpoena, discovery request or other lawful process.

LAW ENFORCEMENT
We may disclose your protected health information for law enforcement purposes as required by law, such as when required by court order, including laws that require reporting of certain types of wounds or other physical injury.

CORONERS, MEDICAL EXAMINERS AND FUNERAL DIRECTORS
We may disclose your protected health information to funeral directors or coroners consistent with applicable law to allow them to carry out their duties.

ORGAN PROCUREMENT ORGANIZATIONS
Consistent with applicable law, we may disclose your protected health information to organ procurement organizations or other entities engaged in the procurement, banking, or transplantation of organs, eyes, or tissue for the purpose of donation and transplant.

RESEARCH
We may disclose information to researchers when an institutional review board, which has reviewed the research proposal and established protocols to ensure the privacy of your protected health information, has approved their research.

THREAT TO HEALTH AND SAFETY
To avert a serious threat to health or safety, we may disclose your protected health information consistent with applicable law to prevent or lessen a serious, imminent threat to the health or safety of a person or the public.

FOR SPECIALIZED GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS
We may disclose your protected health information for specialized government functions as authorized by law such as to Armed Forces personnel, for national security purposes, or to public assistance program personnel.

CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS
If you are an inmate of a correctional institution, we may disclose to the institution or its agents the protected health information necessary for your health and the health and safety of other individuals.

WORKERS COMPENSATION
If you are seeking compensation through Workers Compensation, we may disclose your protected health information to the extent necessary to comply with laws relating to Workers Compensation.

Other Uses and Disclosures
Other uses and disclosures besides those identified in this Notice will be made only as otherwise authorized by law or with your written authorization which you may revoke except to the extent information or action has already been taken.

Website
We maintain a website that provides information about our entity, this Notice is on the website.

Effective Date: April 14, 2003

Contact Us

Billing & Insurance

P (901) 684-5511


Bartlett/Union/Atoka Office

P (901) 377-2111


Germantown Offices

1324 Wolf Park Dr. - P (901) 755-9110

2999 Centre Oak Way - P (901) 684-5500

8000 Wolf River Blvd - P (901) 747-3630


Desoto Office

7668 Airways Blvd, Bldg. B - P (901) 766-9490 or (662) 349-6950


G.I. Diagnostic & Therapeutic Center

Germantown (1310 Wolf Park Drive) - P (901) 624-5151

Germantown (8000 Wolf River Blvd) - P (901) 747-3630

Desoto (7668 Airways Blvd, Bldg. B) - P (662) 349-6950


Administration

P (901) 682-1233

If you have questions about an appointment, nurse's call, prescription, lab results, or anything else related to your health, please use our PatientPortal, or call your physician's office location.  General questions or feedback can be emailed to us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sigmoidoscopy

General Information:              

  • Description: A small flexible scope with a camera mounted on the end (sigmoidoscope) is inserted into the rectum and guided up the colon examining the lower portion of the colon. Specimens can be taken of the colonic lining at the time of the study. A doctor (or sometimes a nurse) performs the test with the assistance of a nurse in a doctor's office, endoscopy center, or hospital. The Gastroenterologist interprets the results. If specimens are obtained, a Pathologist interprets the results. The test takes 10-30 minutes to perform.

  • Discomfort - There is mild to moderate discomfort associated with passage of the scope and having air put into the colon.                  

  • Results - The Gastroenterologist's interpretation is available immediately; 2-3 days for results from tissue samples obtained.                  

  • Risks of Test - The main complication is perforation of the colon (1 in 5,000-7,000). Other potential complications include bleeding or infection.                 

  • Other Names - Flex sig, flexible sigmoidoscopy.

Indications for the Test

  • Colorectal cancer screening - To identify polyps (growths that may turn into cancer) and cancer.

  • To evaluate bleeding, diarrhea, or inflammatory bowel disease.

Preparation

  • There is a mild bowel prep to be taken at home either the evening before or the morning of the test.

  • You may be advised that nothing should be consumed for 8 hours before the test, except medications as directed by your doctor.

  • Aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin substitutes), blood thinners, and anticoagulants should not be taken for five days before the test to reduce the risk of bleeding.

  • Some persons may be given an antibiotic before the test if there is a risk of infection associated with the test.

  • You wear a hospital gown.

Procedure

  • The test is generally well tolerated without sedation, but sedation can be given if requested.

  • While lying on your left side, the scope is guided into the colon. The doctor examines the colonic lining as it is projected to a TV monitor. Air is instilled into the colon to aid in visualization of the lining.

  • If indicated by the findings, the doctor can take tissue samples, treat sites that are bleeding, or remove polyps (growths).

  • During the test, you may have discomfort related to a feeling of distention. Breathing slowly and deeply can usually relieve this discomfort.

After the Procedure

  • You are free to dress and leave.

  • You will pass the air instilled into the colon after the test.

  • Notify your doctor immediately if significant pain or bleeding occurs after the test.

Factors Affecting Results

  • An inadequate bowel prep can limit the ability to examine the colonic lining.

  • Some may find the test too uncomfortable to allow completion.

  • The presence of significant diverticulosis (small pockets or out-pouchings in the colonic wall) can limit the ability to pass the scope.

Advantages

  • A direct examination of the colonic lining is possible.

  • Tissue specimens can be obtained if indicated.

  • Minimal preparation and no sedation are required.

Disadvantages

  • The test can be uncomfortable for some.

  • The test does not allow for the examination of the entire colon (as in colonoscopy).

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Do I take my blood pressure medicine before the test? Yes.
  2. I take blood thinners. What do I do? Do not take blood thinners for four days prior to the test.
  3. I'm on dialysis. Are there any special instructions? Drink Colyte prep instead of Fleets the night before the test.
  4. My test is scheduled for late afternoon. Can I eat something prior to the test? No, just clear liquids up until 4 hours prior to the test.
  5. I'm a diabetic. Do I take my normal amount of insulin? Take ½ of your normal dosage the night before the test. Do not take insulin the morning of the test. If you take oral medication for your diabetes, do not take your medication the morning of the test.
  6. Can I take aspirin prior to the test? Do not take aspirin 4 days prior to the test.
  7. Can I take iron? Do not take iron 4 days prior to the test.
  8. Can I take my heart medicine? Yes, take as normal.

24 Hour pH Impedance Monitor          

An ambulatory 24-hour pH/impedance monitor is a valuable tool for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease.  The impedance probe is a very small catheter (about one-fourth the thickness of a pencil) which is inserted through the nose and into the esophagus.  The probe records changes in the acidity of the esophagus while measuring how frequently stomach acid refluxes into the esophagus.  It also records how long each reflux episode lasts.

Patients are required to fast after midnight the night before the test. They will be here approximately ninety minutes the day that the catheter is placed.  The end of the catheter exits through the nose and is connected to a small computerized box that will be worn for the next 24 hours while the patient continues their normal daily activities.  While the probe is in place, the patient will also keep a diary and will note times when having symptoms, eating, taking medications and sleeping.  The patient will return to the office the next day to return the recording device and have the catheter removed. This visit only lasts a few minutes.  The information recorded is then downloaded and sent to the physician who interprets the information and notes any correlation between  symptoms in the diary and recorded information. 

Radionuclide Scanning of the Liver, Gallbladder, or Stomach

General Information:              

  • Description: Radionuclides are compounds that, when injected into the body, collect in certain organs making them visible by a special type of x-ray machine (gamma scintillation camera). Different radionuclides are used to examine the liver/spleen, gallbladder, stomach, or to locate a site of bleeding in the abdomen. The test is performed in a hospital or outpatient x-ray facility by a radiology technician. The results are interpreted by a Radiologist. Depending on which of the above organs are being examined, the test takes 30-90 minutes.

  • Discomfort - Minimal. The radionuclide has to be injected into a vein and there may be some discomfort associated with the infusion of the drug.                  

  • Results - 2-3 days; within hours in emergency situations.                  

  • Risk of Procedure - Minimal risk related to radiation exposure. The test should not be performed if pregnant. Minimal risk of adverse reaction to the medication.                 

  • Risks of Procedure - None.                                 

  • Other Names - Liver/spleen scan or liver scan Gallbladder scan, HIDA scan, or biliary scan Gastric emptying scan or stomach scan RBC scan or bleeding scan.

Liver/Spleen Scan

  • To identify masses in the liver or spleen.

  • To identify cirrhosis of the liver.

Gallbladder Scan

  • To identify cholecystitis (an infected gallbladder).

  • To identify a blockage in the bile ducts draining the liver and gall bladder.

  • To determine how well the gall bladder is functioning.

Gastric Emptying Scan

  • To determine how well the stomach is emptying solids and liquids after they have been ingested.
                     

Preparation

  • You may be advised that nothing should be consumed for 8 hours before the test, except medications as directed by your doctor.

  • You may be asked to wear a hospital gown.

Procedure

  • An intravenous line is placed to administer the radionuclide.

  • You lay on an x-ray table.

  • The radionuclide is injected into the vein. For a gastric emptying scan, you eat or drink the radionuclide mixed in food or liquid.

  • X-ray images are obtained after the radionuclide collects in the organ of interest.

  • Depending on which organ is being examined, additional medication may be injected via the vein.
      

After the Procedure

  • You may dress and return to normal activities.

Factors Affecting Results

  • Movement can blur the images obtained by the x-ray machine.                  

  • Some diseases may interfere with the proper uptake of the nucleotide, limiting the test.

Advantages

  • The test can determine how well the examined organ is functioning.

  • In a bleeding scan, a site of bleeding can be located when the rate of bleeding is very slow.

  • The tests are easily tolerated with minimal exposure to x-rays.

Disadvantages

  • Although abnormal functioning or another abnormality may be identified, the exact cause of the abnormality is not determined by these tests.

Paracentesis

General Information:              

  • Description: The collection of fluid within the abdomen is a sign of significant disease. This fluid can be drawn out of the abdomen and analyzed to determine the cause of its accumulation. Possible causes of ascites include liver disease, infection and cancer. At times, the amount of fluid collected may cause problems (discomfort or problems breathing). A large amount of the fluid can be removed in such situations to provide patient relief. A paracentesis is performed by a doctor in an office, at an x-ray facility or at a hospital. The fluid as aspirated via a needle inserted into the abdominal cavity. The fluid is analyzed in a lab to determine its composition. The test can take from 5-45 minutes.

  • Discomfort - Pain at puncture site.

  • Results - 1-3 days.

  • Risks of Procedure - Infection, bleeding, puncture of internal organs by the needle. Blood pressure may fall if too much fluid is removed too rapidly.

  • Other Names - Fluid tap.

Indications for the Test

  • Identify the source or cause of fluid collection within the abdomen.

  • To provide relief of discomfort or shortness of breath related to ascites.

Preparation

  • Limit food intake for 4 hours before the test.

  • Empty bladder before the test.

  • You might be asked to wear a hospital gown.

Procedure

  • While lying on your back local anesthesia is given and a needle is inserted into the abdomen. Fluid is then withdrawn and sent to the lab.

  • A CT scan or abdominal ultrasound may be used to guide the needle into the abdomen.

After the Test

  • Dressing is placed over the puncture site.

  • The site is observed for leakage.

Factors Affecting Results

  • Small amounts of fluid may be difficult to sample.

Advantages

  • The test is simple.

  • The test is relatively safe.

  • The test can provide for relief of discomfort or shortness of breath related to the fluid.

Disadvantages

  • Can cause infection of the fluid.

 

Occult Blood in Stool

General Information:              

  • Description: Some diseases of the intestines can result in the passage of blood in the stool. Small amounts of blood are not visible in the stool. Special chemicals can be applied to stool samples in order to allow for detection of small amounts of blood (occult blood). The stool sample can be obtained by a doctor, nurse, or the patient at a hospital, doctor's office, or at home. The results are interpreted by a doctor, lab technician, or nurse. The test takes minutes to perform, both in collecting the stool and applying the chemical.

  • Discomfort - Minimal or no discomfort; although, obtaining the stool specimen is unpleasant.                  

  • Results - Immediately, or 1-2 days if the results are interpreted at a lab.                  

  • Risks of Procedure - None.                                

  • Other Names - Heme occult, fecal occult blood test (FOBT).

Indications for the Test

  • To identify blood in the stool as a manifestation of disease in the intestines.

  • To screen for colorectal cancer.

Preparation

  • The test can be made to show a false positive result by various compounds. You may be advised to avoid aspirin or aspirin substitutes, iron supplements, alcohol, or foods such as red meats, citrus fruits, bean sprouts, turnips, radishes, mushrooms or artichokes.

Procedure

  • Stool samples are collected by digital rectal exam in the hospital or doctor's office.

  • Stool samples are collected at the patient's home by the patient. A sample is obtained with the use of an applicator stick and applied to the cards as directed.

  • The stool cards are then developed at a doctor's office or lab.

After the Procedure

  • You are free to resume normal activities.

Factors Affecting Results

  • Hemorrhoids, menstrual bleeding, or one of the compounds listed above may cause false-positive results.

Advantages

  • The test can detect minute amounts of blood in the stool.

  • The test is inexpensive.

  • The test can be performed at home.

Disadvantages

  • The cause of the blood in the stool is not made apparent from the test.

  • False positive results are common.

  • Collecting stool specimens is unpleasant.

Needle Biopsy

General Information:              

  • Description: Infection, inflammation, and tumors can affect any organ within the abdomen. Sometimes an abnormality is identified to involve the liver, pancreas, lymph nodes, or kidneys and the exact cause may not be apparent. In these situations a biopsy of the affected organ can be helpful in leading to the cause and treatment of the disease process. A Radiologist or Gastroenterologist performs the test in a hospital. Sometimes CT scan or ultrasound guides the biopsy needle. A Pathologist interprets the results. The test takes 15-60 minutes to perform.

  • Discomfort - Moderate discomfort during needle insertion.                  

  • Results - 2-3 days.                  

  • Risks of Procedure - Main risk of test is bleeding. Other risks include injury to the organs of the abdomen and infection.                  

  • Other Names - Liver biopsy, pancreatic biopsy, or fine needle biopsy.

Indications of the Test

  • To identify the cause of an abnormality (infection, inflammation, or tumor/cancer) involving the liver, pancreas, lymph nodes, or kidney when other tests have been non-conclusive.

  • To identify cirrhosis or hepatitis in the liver.

Preparation

  • Nothing should be consumed for 8 hours before the test, except medications as directed by your doctor.

  • Aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin substitutes), blood thinners, and anticoagulants should not be taken for five days before the test to reduce the risk of bleeding.

  • You will be asked to empty your bladder before the test.

  • You wear a hospital gown.

Procedure

  • You are placed on a table or x-ray table.

  • After the site to be biopsied is sterilized, a local anesthetic is injected.

  • You may be asked to exhale completely and hold your breath to reduce the risk of a puncturing the lung.

  • A needle is inserted into the organ to be biopsied. A CT scan or ultrasound may be used to guide placement of the needle.

  • The needle is inserted quickly and then withdrawn. The tissue inside the needle is removed for analysis.

  • Sometimes several insertions of the needle are performed to ensure that adequate tissue is obtained or to sample different areas.

After the Procedure

  • A pressure dressing is applied to the puncture site to control bleeding.

  • You are monitored in a recovery area until it is certain you have no complications. You may be monitored for up to 4 hours if a liver biopsy was performed.

  • You may be instructed to have limited activity for 1 day.

  • Pain is to be expected at the puncture site for 1-2 days. Sometimes the pain may be in the shoulder.

Factors Affecting Results

  • Small areas of abnormality can be difficult to sample adequately.

Advantages

  • Tissue is obtained for analysis when the cause of an abnormality is not apparent from other tests.

  • The test can sometimes avoid the need for surgery.

Disadvantages

  • The test is painful and invasive.

  • Only small tissue samples are obtained.

Modified Barium Swallow

General Information:              

  • Description: A video is taken as contrast is swallowed. The video can then be played back at a slower speed to detect minor abnormalities in the swallowing mechanism. An Otolaryngologist or Radiologist and speech therapist perform the test at an x-ray facility. The doctor then interprets the results. The test takes 1 hour to perform.

  • Discomfort - Minimal. The contrast is unpleasant to swallow to some.

  • Duration - About 30 minutes to 1 hour depending on findings.                  

  • Results - Within 1-2 days.                  

  • Risks of Procedure - Exposure to radiation, particularly during pregnancy.                  

  • Average Cost - $                  

  • Other Names - Video swallow or cookie swallow.

Indication for the Test

  • To examine the swallowing mechanism in persons who are having problems swallowing.

Preparation

  • Nothing by mouth for several hours before the test.

  • You wear a hospital gown.

  • You are placed on an x-ray table.

  • A video monitor attached to an x-ray machine is used to take pictures and videos as you swallow various foods. 

Procedure

  • While on the x-ray table, you swallow barium of varying consistencies (thin liquid, thick liquid, paste, and barium-coated cookie/marshmallow/pill).

  • By varying the amounts and consistency of the contrast material that is swallowed, the doctor is able to identify the cause of the swallowing problem.

  • With a speech pathologist present, techniques to aid in improving the swallowing problem can be identified.

After the Procedure

  • Patient is free to leave and resume normal activities.

Factors affecting results

  • Movement affects the quality of the images obtained.

Advantages

  • The test can identify the cause of the swallowing problem and, in some cases, identify techniques to improve swallowing.

Disadvantages

  • Detailed images of the damaged organs are not obtained.

  • There is a small amount of radiation exposure.

  • Some diseases that can cause swallowing problems can be missed if they occur in the mid or lower esophagus.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

General Information:              

  • Description: A long, flexible tube with a camera mounted on the end (endoscope) is inserted into the mouth. The scope is then guided through the esophagus, stomach, and into the duodenum (first part of the small intestines). This allows for viewing of the internal lining of the upper intestines directly. A Gastroenterologist performs the test with assistance from a nurse in a hospital, endoscopy suite or doctor's office. The Gastroenterologist interprets the results. If specimens are obtained, a Pathologist interprets the results. The test takes 5-15 minutes to complete.

  • Discomfort - An intravenous line has to be placed. Depending on the level of sedation, there may be some discomfort as the scope is passed and as air is instilled into the intestines.                  

  • Results - The Gastroenterologist's interpretation is available immediately; 2-3 days for results from tissue samples obtained.                  

  • Risks of Procedure - Perforation of the intestines, bleeding, aspiration of gastric juices into lungs.                  

  • Average Cost - $$-$$$

  • Other Names - Endo, Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy

Indications for the Test

  • To examine and take tissue samples of abnormalities identified by other tests (UGI X-ray or CT) of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

  • To search for the cause of symptoms thought to come from the UGI tract such as swallowing problems, chest pain, nausea or vomiting, heartburn, loss of appetite and weight loss, diarrhea, or GI bleeding.

  • To stop bleeding from the upper GI tract, stretch open the esophagus, or remove foreign bodies.

  • Some persons may be given an antibiotic before the test if there is a risk of infection associated with the test.

Preparation

  • Nothing should be consumed for 8 hours before the test, except medications as directed by your doctor.

  • Aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin substitutes), blood thinners, and anticoagulants should not be taken for five days before the test to reduce the risk of bleeding.

  • Arrangements should be made for someone to drive you home after the test.

  • You wear a hospital gown. Dentures are removed before the test.

Procedure

  • Monitors are attached to observe the blood pressure, pulse rate, and oxygen level of the blood. Supplemental oxygen is given via the nose.

  • An intravenous line is placed for a sedative to be given. A local anesthetic may be sprayed into the throat to suppress the gag reflex.

  • A mouthpiece is placed between your teeth to prevent you from accidentally biting the endoscope.

  • Your throat may be sprayed with a medication to suppress the gag reflex. You receive a sedative intravenously. Depending on the level of sedation, you may drift off to sleep during the procedure.

  • After you are sedated, an endoscope is passed through your mouth and guided down into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestines just beyond the stomach). The image from the endoscope is displayed on a TV monitor.

  • Air is instilled into the intestines via the endoscope to aid in viewing the inside lining of the intestines.

  • Tissue samples can be taken via the endoscope. If a narrowed area is found, it can be dilated via the endoscope.

After the Procedure

  • You are monitored in the recovery area until the sedation wears off.

  • Once the sedation wears off, you may have someone drive you home.

  • If your throat was sprayed with oral sedation, you should not eat or drink until it wears off (up to 2 hours after the test).

  • You will belch and pass flatulence until the air instilled during the study has been passed. A mild sore throat is to be expected after the test for several days.

  • If you have severe abdominal pain or pass blood, notify your doctor immediately.

Factors Affecting Results

  • The presence of food or blood in the stomach can limit the ability to examine the gastric lining.

Advantages

  • The lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum can be visualized directly.

  • If an abnormality is identified, tissue can be obtained for analysis, bleeding can sometimes be stopped, and narrowed areas can sometimes be dilated.

Disadvantages

  • The test is an invasive procedure.

  • Depending on the level of sedation, there may be discomfort associated with the test.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Do I take my blood pressure medicine before the test? Yes.
  2. I take blood thinners. What do I do? Do not take blood thinners for four days prior to the test.
  3. I'm on dialysis. Are there any special instructions? Drink Colyte prep instead of Fleets the night before the test.
  4. My test is scheduled for late afternoon. Can I eat something prior to the test? No, just clear liquids up until 4 hours prior to the test.
  5. I'm a diabetic. Do I take my normal amount of insulin? Take ½ of your normal dosage the night before the test. Do not take insulin the morning of the test. If you take oral medication for your diabetes, do not take your medication the morning of the test.
  6. Can I take aspirin prior to the test? Do not take aspirin 4 days prior to the test.
  7. Can I take iron? Do not take iron 4 days prior to the test.
  8. Can I take my heart medicine? Yes, take as normal.

Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS)

General Information:              

  • Description: A long, flexible tube with an ultrasound attachment is inserted into the mouth or rectum and guided through either the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) or the lower gastrointestinal tract (rectum and colon). Once the endoscope is in place, the doctor turns on the ultrasound attachment, producing soundwaves that create an image on a TV screen in the room. A Gastroenterologist performs the test with assistance from a nurse in a hospital, endoscopy suite or doctor's office. The Gastroenterologist interprets the results. If specimens are obtained, a Pathologist interprets the results. The test takes 15-60 minutes to complete.

  • Discomfort - An intravenous line has to be placed. Depending on the level of sedation, there may be some discomfort as the scope is passed through the colon and as air is instilled into the intestines.  Some people experience slight discomfort as the endoscope passes down the throat.                  

  • Results - The Gastroenterologist's interpretation is available immediately; 2-3 days for results from tissue samples obtained.                  

  • Risks of Procedure - Colon perforation is the major risk and occurs in 0.01% to 0.5% of cases. Other risks include bleeding, infection, and adverse reaction to the medication used for sedation.                  

Indications for the Test

  • To further evaluate abnormalities identified in the digestive tract by other tests.

  • To identify a source of abdominal pain, diarrhea, bleeding, or abnormal weight loss.

  • To provide more detailed pictures than can be obtained in other tests.

Preparation

  • When having an EUS of the lower digestive tract, only clear liquids are consumed on the day before the test. After midnight on the morning of the test, nothing should be consumed, except medications as directed by your doctor.

  • A special medication (laxative) will be given the day before the test with instructions on how to take it. An enema may be prescribed on the morning of the test. It is important that the laxative be taken as prescribed in order for the colon to be cleaned adequately.

  • When having an EUS of the upper digestive tract, nothing should be consumed for 8 hours before the test, except medications as directed by your doctor.  No colon cleansing preparartion is required for the upper EUS.

  • Aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin substitutes), blood thinners, anticoagulants, and iron supplements should not be taken for five days before the test to reduce the risk of bleeding.

  • If the procedure is performed on an outpatient basis, the patient must arrange in advance to have someone waiting in the lobby during the procedure to drive them home afterward.

  • Patient will be asked to remove all clothing and wear a hospital gown.

  • If patient is at a high risk of certain types of heart disease, they may be given antibiotics to prevent infection, since there is a small risk that infectious organisms from the bowels may penetrate the bloodstream as a result of this procedure and may travel to the heart.

Procedure

  • After changing into a hospital gown, you will have an intravenous line placed for the sedative to be given.

  • Monitors are attached to observe the blood pressure, pulse rate, and oxygen level of the blood. Supplemental oxygen is given via the nose.

  • Once you are sedated, the doctor guides the ultrasound endoscope into the area to be examined.   The ultrsound is then turned on and the image is viewed by the doctor on a monitor in the room.

  • If indicated by the findings, the doctor can take tissue samples, treat sites that are bleeding, or remove polyps (growths).

  • During the test, you may have discomfort related to a feeling of distention. Breathing slowly and deeply usually relieves this discomfort.

After the Procedure

  • You are monitored in the recovery area until the sedation wears off.

  • Once the sedation wears off, you may have someone drive you home.

  • You pass large amounts of gas for several hours after the test.

  • If you had an upper EUS, you may experience a sore throat for a few days following the test.  Over the counter lozenges will help soothe a sore throat.

  • You may be advised not to take aspirin or aspirin substitutes for up to 2 weeks after the test.

  • Notify your doctor immediately if you experience bleeding, severe pain, or fever after the test.

Factors Affecting Results

  • An incomplete bowel preparation, or the presence of food or blood in the stomach,  will obscure the lining of the digestive tract, limiting the doctor's ability to examine the colon.

Advantages

  • The EUS provides the doctor with more detailed images than other similar tests.

  • Abnormalities identified can be biopsied and polyps can be removed during the test.

  • Diseases of the pancreas, gallbladder, and bile duct can be diagnosed.  

Disadvantages

  • The preparation for the test is unpleasant.

  • There may be some discomfort during the test.

  • The test is invasive.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangipancreatography 

General Information:              

  • Description: While performing endoscopy, a contrast material is injected via the endoscope into the pancreas and bile ducts. X-ray pictures are obtained allowing for abnormalities to be identified and sometimes treated. A Gastroenterologist performs the test in a hospital or endoscopy center with the assistance of nurses and technicians. The Gastroenterologist and a Radiologist interpret the results. If specimens are obtained, a Pathologist interprets the results. The test takes 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

  • Discomfort - An intravenous line has to be placed. Depending on the level of sedation, there may be discomfort associated with swallowing the endoscope. After the procedure, there may be discomfort related to a sore throat and air that has been placed into the intestines.                  

  • Results - The Gastroenterolgist's results are generally available at the end of the study. The results from the x-rays may take 1-2 days. Results of tissue samples in 2-3 days.                  

  • Risks of Procedure - Complications occur in 1-5% of cases and include inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), bleeding, infection, perforation of the intestines, and adverse reaction to the medications used in the procedure.                                 

  • Other Names - ERCP

Indications for the Test

  • To identify the cause of obstruction of the bile ducts (gallstones, tumors, and strictures), that may cause abnormal liver tests, pain and/or jaundice.

  • To evaluate tumors of the pancreas when identified by CT or sonogram.

  • To identify the cause of inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). To evaluate the pancreas before surgery is performed.

  • To treat blockages of the bile ducts or pancreas.

Preparation

  • Nothing should be consumed for 8 hours before the test, except medications as directed by your doctor.

  • Aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin substitutes), blood thinners, anticoagulants, and iron supplements should not be taken for five days before the test to reduce the risk of bleeding.

  • Arrangements should be made for someone to drive you home after the test.

  • Some patients may receive antibiotics prior to the test.

  • You wear a hospital gown and lie on a x-ray table.                  

Procedure

  • Your blood pressure and oxygen levels are monitored during the procedure.

  • An intravenous line is placed for a sedative to be given. A local anesthetic may be sprayed into the throat to suppress the gag reflex. Supplemental oxygen is given via the nose.

  • A mouthpiece is placed between your teeth to prevent you from accidentally biting the endoscope.

  • After you are sedated, an endoscope is passed through your mouth and guided down into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestines just beyond the stomach). The image from the endoscope is displayed on a TV monitor and the image from the x-ray machine is displayed on the fluoroscope monitor.

  • Air is instilled into the intestines via the endoscope to aid in viewing the inside lining of the intestines. Additional medications may be given to suppress contractions in the intestines and to remove gas bubbles.

  • After the endoscope is positioned correctly in the duodenum, a smaller tube (cannula) is passed through the endoscope and into the opening of the ampulla of vater in the duodenum. Contrast dye can then be injected through the cannula into the common bile duct and into the pancreatic duct.

  • X-rays of the ducts filled with the contrast are then taken.

  • If needed, the opening of the ampulla of vater may be enlarged, gallstones may be removed, tissue samples may be obtained or a stent (a small tubular structure that supports opening of the duct) may be placed to allow drainage of a duct.                  

After the Procedure

  • Same as for EGD. After the gag reflex returns, consume only light foods for 24 hours.

  • There may be some cramping of the abdomen as the air instilled during the test passes through the intestines.

  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) can be induced by the test. If severe abdominal pain or nausea/vomiting should develop, contact your doctor.                  

Factors Affecting Results

  • Same as for EGD.

  • The pancreatic or bile duct may be impossible to fill with contrast dye, particularly if there is significant disease present.                  

Advantages

  • The bile ducts and pancreas can be viewed in great detail allowing for the identification of abnormalities.

  • Tissue samples can be obtained if needed.

  • Some diseases such as gallstones in the ducts or blockages of the ducts can be treated thus avoiding the need for surgery.                  

Disadvantages

  • It may cause discomfort.

  • Risk of pancreatitis.

  • There is a small amount of radiation exposure.

Contrast X-rays of the Digestive System 

General Information:              

  • Description: Contrast (Barium) is used to fill the intestines. X-rays can not penetrate the contrast. With the intestines filled with the contrast, abnormalities in the lining can be detected. A radiologist and a technician at an x-ray facility perform the test. The results are interpreted by the radiologist. The test takes 30 minutes to 3 hours to perform, depending on which segment is being examined.

  • Discomfort - Minimal discomfort associated with lying on the x-ray table.                  

  • Results - Within 1-2 days; within 1 hour in emergency situations.                  

  • Risks of Procedure - Exposure to radiation, particularly during pregnancy. Some types of contrast dye may block the intestines if not passed in 1 to 2 days.                  

  • Special Equipment - Contrast material (barium), X-ray machine, and Fluoroscope.                  

  • Risks/Complications - Risks associated with radiation, particularly during pregnancy. The barium may accumulate and block the intestines if it is not removed within a day or two.

  • Other Names - Other names of contrast x-rays of the intestines depend on the segment of the intestines to be examined. Barium swallow or esophagogram (examines the esophagus and swallowing); upper gastrointestinal (GI) series (examines the esophagus, stomach and the first part of the small intestines); small bowel series, enteroclysis or small bowel enema (examines the small intestines); barium enema (examines the large intestines or colon).

Indications for the Test

  • To evaluate swallowing problems and identify abnormalities in the esophagus (barium swallow or esophagogram).

  • To detect cancers, ulcers and other inflammatory conditions in the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum (upper GI series).

  • To identify abnormalities of the small intestines such as blockages, tumors and Crohn's disease (enteroclysis or small bowel series).

  • To identify cancer, polyps, inflammation, and diverticula of the colon and rectum (barium enema or air contrast barium enema).

Preparation

  • A light meal should be eaten the evening before the test and nothing by mouth after midnight. Children should have nothing by mouth 4 hours before the test.

  • A laxative or enema is given on the day before the test to clear the colon for a small bowel series.

  • Clear liquids and an intestinal purgative are given the day before the test for a barium enema.

  • Prior to the procedure, remove all clothing and wear a hospital gown.

Procedure

  • For an upper GI or a small bowel series, you drink the contrast. For an enteroclysis, barium is pumped through a tube that is passed down the nose, through the stomach, and into the small bowel. For a barium enema, the contrast is given via an enema.

  • You are placed on an x-ray table for the images to be taken.

  • The Radiologist examines the intestines with a fluoroscope. The Radiologist may push on your abdomen to better view different segments of the intestines.

  • Air may be introduced into the colon during the barium enema to perform an air contrasted barium enema. This makes it possible to see small abnormalities of the lining of the colon.

After the Procedure

  • You may dress and leave.

  • You may be given a mild laxative to assist in passage of the contrast dye.

  • Your stools will be light-colored and chalky after the test till all of the contrast is passed.

Factors Affecting Results

  • An incomplete bowel preparation (presence of food) may affect the x-ray films.

  • Movement during the test and obesity may affect the x-ray films.

Advantages

  • The test gives a better image of the intestines than a regular (uncontrasted) x-ray.

  • The test is minimally invasive.

  • The test is less expensive than endoscopy or a CT scan.

Disadvantages

  • Radiation exposure.

  • Further testing might be needed to clarify the cause of any abnormality identified.

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Abdomen

General Information:

  • Description: A CT scan involves taking X-ray pictures of the body and using computers to combine these pictures into a high-resolution image, making small abnormalities detectable. A radiology technician performs the test at an x-ray facility. The results are interpreted by a radiologist. A CT scan takes about an hour to complete. 
  • Discomfort: Minimal. An intravenous line has to be placed. The x-ray table can be uncomfortable to some people, the contrast dye can cause a hot flush and some people may experience anxiety during the test. 
  • Results: Usually within 1-2 days. Results can be available within 1 hour in emergency situations.
  • Risks of Procedure: Adverse reactions to contrast dye, risks associated with radiation during pregnancy 
  • Other Names: CT scan, CAT scan and computed axial tomography of the abdomen

Indications for the Test: 

  • To evaluate abdominal pain
  • To evaluate the organs of the abdomen including the stomach, small bowel, large bowel (colon), appendix, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes and female organs
  • To detect cysts, abscesses and cancer

Preparation: 

  • A blood test of kidney function might be performed first to determine if the dye could be used safely. 
  • Avoid eating for four hours before the test. 
  • Some patients may require a sedative before the test. 
  • You remove all clothing and wear a hospital gown. 

Procedure:

  • About one hour prior to the test you may be asked to drink a solution of barium to provide an outline of the digestive tract. Contrast dye may be injected into your vein to highlight blood vessels.  The CT table, with the patient lying flat, is slowly moved through the center of the CT scanner. 
  • You are instructed to remain still and to hold your breath when each picture is taken. 


After the Test:

  • After dressing, you may leave.

Colonoscopy

General Information:

  • Description: A long, flexible tube with a camera mounted on the end (colonoscope) is inserted into the rectum and guided to the end of the colon (large intestines). This allows for viewing the internal lining of the colon directly. A gastroenterologist performs the test with assistance from a nurse in a hospital, endoscopy suite, or doctor's office. The gastroenterologist interprets the results. If specimens are obtained, a pathologist interprets the results. The test takes 15-60 minutes to complete. 
  • Discomfort: An intravenous line has to be placed. Depending on the level of sedation, there may be some discomfort as the scope is passed through the colon and as air is instilled into the intestines.
  • Results: The Gastroenterologist's interpretation is available immediately; 2-3 days for results from tissue samples obtained. 
  • Risks of Procedure: Colon perforation is the major risk and occurs in 0.01% to 0.5% of cases. Other risks include bleeding, infection, and adverse reaction to the medication used for sedation.
  • Other Names: Lower Endoscopy

Indications for the Test:

  • Colon cancer and colon polyp screening
  • To further evaluate abnormalities identified in the colon by other tests 
  • To identify a source of diarrhea, bleeding, or anemia (low blood count) 

Preparation:

  • Only clear liquids are consumed on the day before the test. After midnight on the morning of the test, nothing should be consumed, except medications as directed by your doctor.
  • A special medication (laxative) will be given the day before the test with instructions on how to take it. An enema may be prescribed on the morning of the test. It is important that the laxative be taken as prescribed in order for the colon to be cleaned adequately.
  • Aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin substitutes), blood thinners, anticoagulants, and iron supplements should not be taken for five days before the test to reduce the risk of bleeding.
  • If the procedure is performed on an outpatient basis, patient must arrange in advance to have someone drive them home afterward.
  • Patient will be asked to remove all clothing and wear a hospital gown.
  • If patient is at a high risk of certain types of heart disease, they may be given antibiotics to prevent infection, since there is a small risk that infectious organisms from the bowels may penetrate the bloodstream as a result of this procedure and may travel to the heart. 

Procedure:

  • After changing into a hospital gown, you will have an intravenous line placed for the sedative to be given.
  • Monitors are attached to observe the blood pressure, pulse rate, and oxygen level of the blood. Supplemental oxygen is given via the nose.
  • While lying on your left side, you are sedated. The doctor examines the colonic lining as it is projected to a TV monitor as the scope is guided into the colon. Air is instilled into the colon to aid in visualization of the lining.
  • If indicated by the findings, the doctor can take tissue samples, treat sites that are bleeding, place stents, or remove polyps (growths).
  • During the test, you may have discomfort related to a feeling of distention. Breathing slowly and deeply usually relieves this discomfort. 

After the Procedure:

  • You are monitored in the recovery area until the sedation wears off.
  • Once the sedation wears off, you may have someone drive you home.
  • You pass large amounts of gas for several hours after the test.
  • You may be advised not to take aspirin or aspirin substitutes for up to 2 weeks after the test. 
  • Notify your doctor immediately if you experience bleeding, severe pain, or fever after the test.

Factors Affecting Results:

  • An incomplete bowel preparation will obscure the lining of the colon, limiting the doctor's ability to examine the colon.

Advantages:

  • The lining of the colon can be viewed directly. 
  • Abnormalities identified can be biopsied and polyps can be removed during the test. 

Disadvantages:

  • The preparation for the test is unpleasant.
  • There may be some discomfort during the test.
  • The test is invasive.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. I think I am having a medical emergency. What should I do?  
A. Call 911. Do not call the office. Seek care at a local hospital or emergency room.

Q. I am doing a colonoscopy prep, but I have vomited the prep. What should I do?
A. Call your Gastro One physician office for additional instructions.

Q. I have a question about my bill. Who can I call?  
A. Please call  Patient Accounts  at 901-684-5510 for help.

Q. I have a question about my insurance coverage. Can you help?  
A. Yes. Call Patient Accounts at 901-684-5511 for help.

Q. How can I find out if you accept my insurance?  
A. We participate in most plans, but you can call 901-684-5511 to make sure.

Q. I have not received a report of a biopsy, or a CT scan, or blood tests. How do I get these reports?  
A. You can request these reports by leaving  a message on the Patient Portal, or calling your Gastro One physician.

Q. Can I bring a spouse, child or significant other to my office visit?  
A. Yes. Absolutely.

Q. Are the G.I. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Centers accredited? 
A. Yes, all three of our Endoscopy Centers are accredited by AAAHC (The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Healthcare, Inc.).  In addition, they are also recognized by the ASGE (American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy) for Promoting Quality in Endoscopy.

Abdominal X-ray 

General Information:

  • Description: X-rays are projected through the body onto x-ray film. The different densities and location of the organs, fluid and gases of the abdomen are revealed. Different conditions such as bowel perforation or bowel blockage have characteristic appearances that can be recognized. The test is performed in a doctor's office or x-ray facility by a radiology technician and takes minutes to perform. A doctor interprets the film.
  • Results: 1-2 days; within 1 hour in an emergency
  • Risks of Procedure: Risks related to radiation exposure, although the dose is small. 
  • Other Names: KUB, abdominal film


Indications for the Test:

  • Evaluate abdominal pain or distention 
  • Look for evidence of bowel perforation, bowel blockage or a swallowed foreign object 

Preparation: 

  • Remove your clothing and wear a hospital gown.

Procedure:

  • You stand in front of or lie on a x-ray machine. 
  • You hold your breath while the film is taken. 
  • Films may be taken from different angles.

After the Test:

  • After dressing, you may leave.


Advantages:

  • The test is quick.
  • The test is noninvasive.
  • The test is inexpensive.

Disadvantages:

  • Usually the cause of any abnormality is not determined by the test.

Abdominal Ultrasound

General Information:

  • Description: A transmitter is pressed gently against the abdominal wall. Sound waves are emitted from the transmitter and then bounce off of the internal organs. Information can be obtained about the internal organs by studying the appearance of the sound waves as they bounce off of the organs. A radiology technician or doctor at an office or x-ray facility performs the test. A doctor interprets the results. The test takes 30-60 minutes to complete.
  • Results: Usually within 2 days, within 1 hour in emergency situations. 
  • Variations: Endoscopic ultrasound combines endoscopy and ultrasound. A small ultrasound probe attached to an endoscope (see the description of esophagogastroduodenoscopy) is inserted into the digestive tract via the mouth. This makes it possible to examine organs with minimal interference of other tissues or gas. This method is helpful at identifying abnormalities in the esophagus, stomach, bile duct and pancreas.
  • Other Names: Sono or sonography


Indications for the Test:

  • Examine the organs of the abdomen
  • Sono can examine the liver, bile ducts, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, appendix, and female organs
  • Ascites (collection of fluid in the abdomen) can be detected

Preparation:

  • You might be asked to fast overnight or for at least six hours prior to the test
  • You might be asked to wear a hospital gown 

Procedure: 

  • While lying flat, a clear jelly is applied to the abdomen. Then the probe is rubbed over the abdominal wall. A computer in the ultrasound machine produces the images.

After the Test:

  • You may dress and leave.

Factors Affecting Results:

  • Several factors may affect the images: movement, obesity, and the presence of gas in the bowel that may overlie the organ of interest.

Advantages:

  • The test is quick and painless. 
  • The test is noninvasive. 
  • The test is particularly good at evaluating the solid organs of the abdomen. 
  • The test is easier and less expensive than a CT. 

Disadvantages: 

  • The cause of an abnormality may not be apparent from the test. 
  • Bowel gas can interfere with obtaining good images. 
  • The test is generally less effective at locating small abnormalities in the abdomen. 
  • The test is not good at examining the intestines.

Abdominal Angiography

General Information:

  • Description: Angiography of the abdomen is performed by injecting contrast dye into the blood vessels that supply the organs of the abdomen. By filling the vessels with dye, they can be identified and abnormalities can be detected. A radiologist and x-ray technicians perform the test in a hospital x-ray facility. The results are interpreted by the radiologist. The test takes 30-90 minutes to perform.
  • Discomfort: There is moderate discomfort associated with this test, such as; having an artery punctured for the catheter placement, lying on the x-ray table, and some experience burning with injection of the dye.
  • Results:1-2 days, within 1 hour in emergency situations.
  • Risks of Procedure: Exposure to radiation, particularly during pregnancy; reaction to the contrast dye, including kidney damage; bleeding; perforation of the artery; injury to the nerves; and blood clots that may form on the catheter and travel through the bloodstream. 
  • Other Names: Celiac and mesenteric arteriography


Indications for the Test:

  • To diagnose diseases of the blood vessels in the small and large intestines such as a narrowing that could limit blood flow
  • To identify when a tumor has invaded a blood vessel which would preclude resection of the tumor
  • To identify the site of bleeding in the abdomen and possibly stop the bleeding by injecting a plug or chemical


Preparation:

  • Consume only clear liquids for six to eight hours before the procedure.
  • Remove all clothing and wear a hospital gown.


Procedure:

  • About 30 minutes before the procedure, patient is given a sedative.
  • Your heart rate and blood pressure are monitored during the test.
  • An intravenous line is placed into your arm to provide fluids and medications necessary for the test.
  • Anesthetic is injected at the catheter insertion site and a small incision is made in the groin.
  • A catheter is inserted into the major artery in the abdomen and guided to the area to be examined with the help of an x-ray machine.
  • Contrast dye is injected through the catheter and the radiologist views the arteries while x-ray pictures are made for later interpretation.


After the Procedure:

  • The catheter is removed and a pressure dressing is applied until bleeding stops.
  • You will be instructed to lie with your legs straight for about four hours. A small sandbag is usually placed over the incision for a few hours to prevent bleeding.
  • You are monitored for at least four hours, and the puncture site will be examined for signs of bleeding or swelling.
  • If there is no bleeding after 4 hours, outpatients can leave but must be driven home.
  • Before you go home, you are taught how to apply pressure to stop any bleeding that may occur later. Any bleeding that lasts more than a few minutes requires emergency medical attention.
  • Activity should be limited for several days, particularly in the leg in which the test was performed.
  • After the test, you should drink extra fluid to aid in flushing the dye out of the body by the kidneys.


Factors Affecting Results:

  • Movement during the X-rays may cause blurred images.
  • Obesity and failure to fast before the procedure may obscure the X-rays.
  • Sometimes it is impossible to place the catheter into the specific artery that needs to be examined.


Advantages:

  • This is the best test for providing an excellent view of the arteries in the abdomen.


Disadvantages:

  • It is invasive.
  • It entails risks of bleeding or abnormal clotting.
  • It also entails exposure to radiation.
  • There is potential for allergic reactions to the dye.

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About Us

Excellence in Digestive Care

As the premier and largest gastroenterology practice in the area, Gastro One provides the best in innovative and effective digestive care. Our experienced physicians and staff are a highly professional and caring group that promises commitment to cutting-edge diagnostic techniques. As the leaders in promoting digestive care in the mid-South, we offer treatment solutions for the full spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders.

The Physicians at Gastro One evaluate and treat patients with the entire spectrum of digestive disease symptoms and gastrointestinal disorders including:

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Barrett's Esophagus
  • Bile Duct Stones
  • Colon Cancer Prevention
  • Colon Polyp Removal
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Diverticulosis
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Gastroparesis
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis)
  • Liver Disease
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Pancreatitis
  • Rectal Bleeding
  • Swallowing Disorders
  • Ulcer Disease

To diagnose and treat these medical problems, Gastro One offers a variety of state-of-the-art services, including:

  • Barrett's Esophagus Screening and Ablation
  • Bile Duct Stent Placement
  • Bile Duct Stone Removal
  • Breath Testing for GI Diseases
  • *Capsule Endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy with Polypectomy
  • CT Scanning
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
  • Endoscopic Ultrasonography
  • Esophageal Dilatation and Stent Placement
  • *Esophageal Manometry and Impedance Testing
  • *Esophageal pH Testing
  • *Fibroscan
  • Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
  • *Hemorrhoidal Banding (CRH O'Regan System)
  • Infusion Treatment for IBD
  • Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
  • *Single-balloon Enteroscopy
  • Upper Endoscopy
  • Ultrasonography

*Offered exclusively or first by Gastro One in the Memphis area

Patient Portal Information

Exclusively for Gastro One patients and physicians, the Patient Portal offers the luxury of conveniently conducting routine business with our practice, in the comfort of your own home. The Portal will allow you to leave messages for your nurse or physician, request an appointment, check on labs or other reports, and request prescription refills.

To begin using the Patient Portal, click on the "Patient Portal" link below.

Patient Portal Link

Providers

You can find out more about our Physicians and Providers using the search options below. 

List AlphabeticallyList by Location

Who We Are

Your visit to Gastro One is the first step in diagnosing and treating the cause of your digestive problem. You are entrusting your care to physicians who are recognized for their achievements in gastroenterology and for their comprehensive approach to total digestive wellness. We are a group of physicians and nurse practitioners who are trained in internal medicine with advanced training and specialization in gastroenterology. We use innovative diagnostic techniques and treatment solutions for the full spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders. Our practice of medicine is state-of-the-art, and our physicians work diligently to stay abreast of new developments in gastroenterology.

What to expect

Gastro One is committed to delivering personalized, state-of-the-art services and quality care to every patient.

  • Each patient is treated as an individual with patient evaluation tailored to address the patient's specific area of concern. We allow sufficient time to adequately evaluate each patient's conditions and problems.
  • We make every effort to render compassionate and timely care to reduce patient stress and anxiety.
  • New ideas and developments are incorporated in our day-to-day practice to provide the most up-to-date care possible.
  • Our patients are referred to medical centers and other specialized centers when unusual problems are encountered or specialized testing is necessary.
  • We provide 24-hour-a-day care for emergencies, with a physician available at all times.
  • Patient confidentiality is of utmost importance. Medical records are not available to anyone without the patient's permission.

Please arrive at your appointment time so the receptionist can review your patient information. The physician will usually see you in a timely manner, but emergencies or other unforeseeable events may occasionally cause delays.

The physician and nurse will review your medical history, and a pertinent physical exam will be performed. After this is completed, the physician will discuss his evaluation of your condition with you. Patients are encouraged to ask questions throughout their visit.

Insurance questions

Continuity of care is very important to us. The providers at Gastro One participate in regular Medicare and most commercial health insurance plans. The list of plans may change from time to time, so check with us if your employer or you are considering a change in health insurance plans which might affect your ability to continue as our patient.

Please bring your current insurance card and a driver’s license to every appointment.

Colonoscopy Prep

Prior to your first visit to our clinic, we will mail you a personal history form to complete and bring with you to your appointment, or you may download the forms here.

We also ask that you bring, or have your referring physician send, any  medical records or test results related to your condition. In addition,  we will need the names and dosages of all medications you are currently taking.

Click HERE For An Informative Video About Preparing For Your Procedure!

General Paperwork

Please print, fill out, and bring the following 5 forms with you to your first office appointment:

Patient Registration Forms -- Patient Demographic and Insurance Information

Medical  Records Release Form -- This form allows us to request medical records from your other physicians.  Please sign and date this form only.  If you place a doctor's name in the top portion, you will need to fill out a new form for each different physician we request records from.

Patient Interview Form -- Patient Medical History and Current Complaint information

HIPAA -- HIPAA/Information Release form

Privacy Policy -- A copy of Gastro One's Privacy Policy (read only)

Medication Reconciliation Form -- Please list all of your medications on this form, including over the counter, prescription, and herbal medications.

Procedure Paperwork

If you have an appointment for a procedure, please see the paperwork below:

Patient Instructions -- Please read the Patient Instruction booklet very carefully. 

Medication Reconciliation Form -- Please list all of your medications on this form, including over the counter, prescription, and herbal medications.

Diet and Bowel Prep Instructions:

You cannot have solid food prior to your colonoscopy, so please follow these instructions carefully.

Colonoscopy Diet Instructions -- Diet instructions for all colonocopy preps.

Miralax Prep Instructions -- Please use these instructions if prescribed the Miralax prep by your physician.

Moviprep Instructions -- Please use these instructions is prescribed Moviprep by your physician.

Prepopik -- Please use these instructions if prescribed Prepopik by your physician.

Colonoscopy Tip Sheet -- Tips for a successful colonoscopy preparation.

Upper Endoscopy Diet Instructions:

Upper Endoscopy Diet Instructions-- Please follow these instructions to prepare for your Upper Endoscopy.  

Open Access or Direct Access Program Paperwork

If you are taking advantage of our Open Access or Direct Access programs, please print  the following information packet and follow the instructions.

Open Access Colonoscopy Patient Instructions

 

Request an appointment

Please select any of the convenient methods below to schedule your appointment:

1.    Please call one of our seven conveniently located offices listed in the Locations section of this website. Our staff will assist you in scheduling a date and time.  We will also provide you with a pin number for accessing our Patient Portal.  

2.    Visit our Patient Portal

 

What To Do Before Your Visit

Prior to your appointment, we need to collect some demographic and clinical information so that your physician has everything necessary to give you the best possible care. Please complete the following steps prior to your scheduled visit:

1.  Patient Portal - enter/update your clinical information. All patients must log on to our Patient Portal and complete or update their clinical information. If this is your first time using our Portal, you will need to obtain a PIN number in order to register your account. Please call our office at 901-309-6021 to get your PIN. If you have already entered this information on the Portal for a previous visit, please take a minute to log in and review it to ensure everything is up to date.

2. Insurance and Consent Forms. There are a few additional items (insurance information, consent forms, etc.) that are not covered by the Portal that we need to obtain prior to your visit. Click on the link to download the forms, then print and complete them and bring them with you to your appointment. If you already did this for a previous visit within the past year, you can skip this step unless your personal or insurance information has changed.

**NOTE:  If you have successfully entered your information on the Portal (step 1 above), you only need to complete the indicated portion of these forms.  If for some reason you were not able to complete step 1, you will need to complete the entire printed packet and plan to arrive 1 hour prior to your scheduled appointment time to allow for the information to be reviewed and entered into your chart.**

3. Anesthesia Pre-Registration. If you are having a **procedure at one of our endoscopy centers** (i.e. colonoscopy, upper endoscopy, etc.) please click this link to complete your anesthesia pre-registration history review via our partner site Simple Admit.

For your safety, it is crucial that we receive this information prior to your procedure. You will receive reminders from Simple Admit until this step has been completed.

**NOTE:  Use of perfumes, colognes, and scented lotions are not permitted in Gastro One offices.

 

Colonoscopy Prep Instructions

To download prep instructions, click the link below that corresponds to the brand of prep that your doctor has prescribed. You do not need to follow all three of these instructions documents, just the one that your doctor recommended.  These links contain prep instructions only; if you are looking for our full procedure information booklet, click here to download it.

Clenpiq prep instructions

Colyte, Trilyte, or Golytely prep instructions

Moviprep prep instructions

Plenvu prep instructions

Suprep prep instructions

 

Diet Instructions

Upper Endoscopy Diet instructions - select this if you are *only* having an upper endoscopy.  If you are having a colonoscopy, follow the diet outlined in the instructions for the prep that your doctor prescribed.

 

Colonoscopy Information Video

Click here to view our Colonoscopy Information Video.


Paperwork to bring

Prior to your first visit to our clinic, we will mail you a personal history form to complete and bring with you to your appointment, or you may download the forms here.

We also ask that you bring, or have your referring physician send, any  medical records or test results related to your condition. In addition,  we will need the names and dosages of all medications you are currently  taking.

General Paperwork

Please print, fill out, and bring the following forms with you to your first office appointment:

The general patient paperwork documents include Patient Registration, Medical Records Release, Patient Interview, HIPAA, and Privacy Policy Forms.

General Paperwork Forms

Procedure Paperwork

If you have an appointment for a procedure, please see the paperwork below:

Patient Instructions -- Please read the Patient Instruction booklet very carefully. 

Medication Reconciliation Form -- Please list all of your medications on this form, including over the counter, prescription, and herbal medications.

Bowel Prep Instructions:

Miralax Instructions -- Please use these instructions if prescribed Miralax by your physician.

Moviprep Instructions -- Please use these instructions if prescribed Moviprep by your physician.

Prepopik Instructions -- Please use these instructions if prescribed Prepopik by your physician.

Colonoscopy Tip Sheet -- Tips for a successful colonoscopy preparation.

Upper Endoscopy Diet Instructions:

Diet Instructions-- Please follow these instructions to prepare for your Upper Endoscopy.  

Open Access or Direct Access Program Paperwork

If you are taking advantage of our Open Access or Direct Access programs, please print  the following information packet and follow the instructions.

Open Access Colonoscopy Patient Instructions

 

About Gastro One

Two of the area's largest gastroenterology practices, Gastro One and Memphis Gastroenterology Group, made their merger official July 1, 2014.

The two physicians groups have joined under the Gastro One name, creating the largest gastroenterology practice in the Memphis Metro area, and one of the largest physicians groups in the region, regardless of specialty.

The merged practice features 33 doctors covering the spectrum of gastroenterology – the study, treatment and health of the digestive system (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine/colon, liver, pancreas and gallbladder). Each gastroenterologist is a medical specialist trained in internal medicine and in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving the digestive system.

Gastro One is an independent practice not owned or tied to any hospital system, though its doctors have privileges at the following hospitals in the Mid-South: Baptist East, Baptist DeSoto, Methodist Germantown, Methodist North, Methodist University, and St. Francis Park.

“Independence means the highest level of flexibility for our patients in terms of facilities, insurance and choice,” said Michael S. Dragutsky, M.D., president of the new Gastro One, and formerly with Gastro One. “This new, larger and stronger practice means one stop for all gastro and digestive tract needs for people in the area and for referring physicians.”

Gastro One will operate seven out-patient offices and three endoscopic center locations in the Mid-South.

“This was a perfect match for us as an organization because of our practice footprints, our mutual dedications to compassionate services with medical excellence, and our commitments to practice independence,” said Richard S. Aycock, M.D., senior vice president of the new Gastro One and formerly with Memphis Gastroenterology Group. “This was a true merger where the combined organization is stronger than the sum of its parts.”

All facilities across the practice are in the process of being converted to the Gastro One brand. The transition should have no impact on current patient treatment, insurance or physician relationships. Doctors from each practice began shared call visits in April, so many patients have already met physicians from each former practice.

-Summary written by Rob Robertson- Staff writer, Memphis Business Journal

Read the full Memphis Business Journal article here.

 

 

Why Choose Us

First in Experience

We have literally centuries of combined experience dating back to the beginning of private practice gastroenterology in the Memphis area.  With over 18 years of experience on average, you can be confident your digestive care is in good hands.

First in Size

We are the largest group of Gastroenterologists in the area and among the largest in the country.  With 33 providers and seven locations, we have an office conveniently near where our patients live and work.

First in Technology

We use only the latest in high definition ultrasound, endoscopes, and monitors.  These state-of-the-art scopes and monitors are significantly better than standard definition scopes and monitors at detecting cancerous or pre-cancerous lesions.  We are also the first group in Tennesee and only one in the region to offer Fibroscan technology.

First in Quality

We participate in several national quality assurance programs, including GIQuIC and CCFA QORUS. We are fully accredited by the Accreditation Association for Amulatory Health Care. We are the only Endoscopy Center in the Memphis area recognized for Quality and Safety from the ASGE, and have been since 2010.  We maintain groupwide standardization through our Open Access and Recalls department to ensure that every patient is having the right procedure at the right time.

First in Research

We have the largest gastroenterology/hepatology clinical research department in the area. By being on the forefront of these investigations, we allow patients access to helpful medications that are not otherwise available to the public because they are in the process of being approved by the FDA.

First in Convenience

We are a full service group. We have an on-site high-speed CT scanner, Remicade Infusion Center and in-house pathology lab services.  All of our convenient services cost you and your insurance company less than those provided at the hospital.  In addition, sedation in our endoscopy centers is provided by Nurse Anesthetists with higher patient satisfaction and speedier recovery times than traditional sedation methods.

How We Do It

Colon cancer diagnosis, prevention and screening are very important parts of our practice, as is   screening for esophageal cancer in patients with chronic gastroesophageal  reflux and Barrett’s esophagus.

For our patients’ convenience, we have seven out-patient offices in the Mid-South. All of our providers are accepting new patients.

We also have three endoscopic centers, two are in Germantown and one in north Mississippi, in which we perform most of our endoscopic procedures. These centers are equipped with the latest HD-video endoscopic equipment to aid us in rapid and accurate diagnosis of your problems. In addition, we offer capsule endoscopy and long tube enteroscopy to assist in diagnosing disorders of the small intestine. We also perform Bravo pH testing for assessment of GERD.

We have privileges at the following hospitals in the Mid-South: Baptist East, Baptist DeSoto, Methodist Germantown, Methodist North, Methodist University, and St. Francis Park.

If you would like additional information, please feel free to continue browsing this website or to contact us at one of our office locations listed on the Our Locations page.

We look forward to helping you improve your digestive health.

What We Treat

The physicians at Gastro One evaluate and treat patients with the entire spectrum of digestive disease symptoms and gastrointestinal disorders including:

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Barrett's Esophagus
  • Bile Duct Stones
  • Colon Cancer Prevention
  • Colon Polyp Removal
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Diverticulosis
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Gastroparesis
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis)
  • Liver Disease
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Pancreatitis
  • Rectal Bleeding
  • Swallowing Disorders
  • Ulcer Disease

To diagnose and treat these medical problems, Gastro One physicians offer a variety of state-of-the-art services, including:

  • Barrett's Esophagus Screening and Ablation
  • Bile Duct Stent Placement
  • Bile Duct Stone Removal
  • Breath Testing for GI Diseases
  • *Capsule Endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy with Polypectomy
  • CT Scanning
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
  • *Endoscopic Ultrasonography
  • Esophogeal Dilatation and Stent Placement
  • *Esophogeal Manometry and Impedance Testing
  • *Esophageal pH Testing
  • Fibroscan
  • Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
  • *Hemorrhoidal Banding (CRH O'Regan System)
  • Hemorrhoidal Endothermic Therapy
  • Infusion Treatment for IBD
  • Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
  • Single-balloon Enteroscopy
  • *Sphincter of Oddi Manometry
  • Upper Endoscopy
  • Ultrasonography

*Offered exclusively or first by Gastro One in the Memphis area

GI Glossary

Abdominal Migraine

(ab-DOM-uh-nul MY-grayn) See Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome.

Absorption

(ub-SORP-shun) The way nutrients from food move from the small intestine into the cells in the body.

Accessory Digestive Organs

(ak-SES-uh-ree dy-JES-tiv or-gunz) Organs that help with digestion but are not part of the digestive tract. These organs are the tongue, glands in the mouth that make saliva, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

Achalasia

(AK-uh- LAYZ-ya) A rare disorder of the esophagus. The muscle at the end of the esophagus does not relax enough for the passage to open properly.

Achlorhydria

(AY-klor-HY-dree-uh) A lack of hydrochloric acid in stomach juice.

Activated Charcoal

(AK-tuh-vay-ted CHAR-kohl) An over-the-counter product that may help relieve intestinal gas.

Acute

(uh-KYOOT) A disorder that is sudden and severe but lasts only a short time.

Aerophagia

(AIR-oh-FAY-jee-uh) A condition that occurs when a person swallows too much air. Causes gas and frequent belching.

Alactasia

(ay-lak-TAYZ-ya) An inherited condition causing the lack of the enzyme needed to digest milk sugar.

Alagille Syndrome

(al-uh-GEEL sin-drohm) A condition of babies in their first year. The bile ducts in the liver disappear, and the bile ducts outside the liver get very narrow. May lead to a buildup of bile in the liver and damage to liver cells and other organs.

Alimentary Canal

(al-uh-MEN-tree kuh-NAL) See Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract.

Allergy

(AL-ur-jee) A condition in which the body is not able to tolerate certain foods, animals, plants, or other substances.

Amebiasis

(uh-mee-BY-uh-sis) An acute or chronic infection. Symptoms vary from mild diarrhea to frequent watery diarrhea and loss of water and fluids in the body. See also Gastroenteritis.

Amino Acids

(uh-MEE-noh ASS-udz) The basic building blocks of proteins. The body makes many amino acids. Others come from food and the body breaks them down for use by cells. See also Protein.

Anal Fissure

(AY-nul FISH-er) A small tear in the anus that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding.

Anal Fistula [Anal Fissure]

(AY-nul FIST-yoo-luh) A channel that develops between the anus and the skin. Most fistulas are the result of an abscess (infection) that spreads to the skin.

Anastomosis

(AN-nuh-stuh-MOH-sis) An operation to connect two body parts. An example is an operation in which a part of the colon is removed and the two remaining ends are rejoined.

Anemia

(uh-NEE-mee-uh) Not enough red blood, red blood cells, or hemoglobin (HEE-muh-gloh-bin) in the body. Hemoglobin is a protein in the blood that contains iron.

Angiodysplasia

(AN-jee-oh-dis-PLAYZ-ya) Abnormal or enlarged blood vessels in the gastrointestinal tract.

Angiography

(AN-jee-AW-gruh-fee) An x-ray that uses dye to detect bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

Anorectal Atresia

(AY-noh-REK-tul uh-TREEZ-ya) Lack of a normal opening between the rectum and anus.

Anoscopy

(ay-Naw-skuh-pee) A test to look for fissures, fistulae, and hemorrhoids. The doctor uses a special instrument, called an anoscope, to look into the anus.

Antacids

(ant-ASS-idz) Medicines that balance acids and gas in the stomach. Examples are Maalox, Mylanta, and Di-Gel.

Anticholinergics

(an-tee-koh-lih-NURJ-iks) Medicines that calm muscle spasms in the intestine. Examples are dicyclomine (dy-SY-kloh-meen) (Bentyl) and hyoscyamine (HY-oh-SY-uh-meen) (Levsin).

Antidiarrheals

(AN-tee-dy-uh-REE-ulz) Medicines that help control diarrhea. An example is loperamide (lo-PEH-ruh-myd) (Imodium).

Antiemetics

(an-tee-ee-MET-iks) Medicines that prevent and control nausea and vomiting. Examples are promethazine (pro-MEH-thuh-zeen) (Phenergan) and prochlorperazine (pro-klor-PEH-ruh-zeen) (Compazine).

Antispasmodics

(an-tee-spaz-MAW-diks) Medicines that help reduce or stop muscle spasms in the intestines. Examples are dicyclomine (dy-SY-klo-meen) (Bentyl) and atropine (AH-tro-peen) (Donnatal).

Antrectomy

(an-TREK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove the upper portion of the stomach, called the antrum. This operation helps reduce the amount of stomach acid. It is used when a person has complications from ulcers.

Anus

(AY-nus) The opening at the end of the digestive tract where bowel contents leave the body.

Appendectomy

(AP-en-DEK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove the appendix.

Appendicitis

(uh-PEN-duh-SY-tis) Reddening, irritation (inflammation), and pain in the appendix caused by infection, scarring, or blockage.

Appendix

(uh-PEN-diks) A 4-inch pouch attached to the first part of the large intestine (cecum). No one knows what function the appendix has, if any.

Ascending Colon

(uh-SEND-ing KOH-lun) The part of the colon on the right side of the abdomen.

Ascites

(uh-SY-teez) A buildup of fluid in the abdomen. Ascites is usually caused by severe liver disease such as cirrhosis.

Asymptomatic

(ay-sim-toh-MAT-ik) The condition of having a disease, but without any symptoms of it.

Atonic Colon

(ay-TAW-nik KOH-lun) Lack of normal muscle tone or strength in the colon. This is caused by the overuse of laxatives or by Hirschsprung's disease. It may result in chronic constipation. Also called lazy colon. See Hirschsprung's Disease.

Atresia

(uh-TREEZ-ya) Lack of a normal opening from the esophagus, intestines, or anus.

Atrophic Gastritis

(ay-TROH-fik gah-STRY-tis) Chronic irritation of the stomach lining. Causes the stomach lining and glands to wither away.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

(AW-toh-im-YOON heh-puh-TY-tis) A liver disease caused when the body's immune system destroys liver cells for no known reason.

Barium

(BAIR-ee-um) A chalky liquid used to coat the inside of organs so that they will show upon an x-ray.

Barium Enema X-ray

(BAIR-ee-um EN-uh-muh EKS-ray) See Lower GI Series, Barium Meal, Upper GI Series.

Barrett's Esophagus

(BAH-ruts eh-SAW-fuh-gus) A change in the lining of the esophagus caused by chronic exposure to acid. This change can increase the risk of esophageal cancer.

Belching

(BELL-ching) Noisy release of gas from the stomach through the mouth. Also called burping.

Bernstein Test

(BURN-styn test) A test to find out if heartburn is caused by acid in the esophagus. The test involves dripping a mild acid, similar to stomach acid, through a tube placed in the esophagus.

Bezoar

(BEE-zor) A ball of food, mucus, vegetable fiber, hair, or other material that cannot be digested in the stomach. Bezoars can cause blockage, ulcers, and bleeding.

Bile

(BY-ul) Fluid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps break down fats and gets rid of wastes in the body.

Bile Acids

(BY-ul ASS-idz) Acids made by the liver that work with bile to break down fats.

Bile Ducts

(BY-ul dukts) Tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage and to the small intestine for use in digestion.

Biliary Atresia

(BILL-ee-air-ee uh-TREEZ-ya) A condition present from birth in which the bile ducts inside or outside the liver do not have normal openings. Bile becomes trapped in the liver, causing jaundice and cirrhosis. Without surgery the condition may cause death.

Biliary Dyskinesia

(BILL-ee-air-ee dis-kuh-NEEZ-ya) See postcholecystectomy syndrome.

Biliary Stricture

(BILL-ee-air-ee STRIK-sher) A narrowing of the biliary tract from scar tissue. The scar tissue may result from injury, disease, pancreatitis, infection, or gallstones. See also Stricture.

Biliary System

See Biliary Tract.

Biliary Tract

The gallbladder and the bile ducts. Also called biliary system or biliary tree.

Biliary Tree

See Biliary Tract.

Bilirubin

(BILL-ee-ROO-bin) The substance formed when hemoglobin breaks down. Bilirubin gives bile its color. Bilirubin is normally passed in stool. Too much bilirubin causes jaundice.

Bismuth Subsalicylate

(BIZ-muth SUB-sal-ih-SIL-ayt) A non-prescription medicine such as Pepto-Bismol. Used to treat diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, and nausea. It is also part of the treatment for ulcers caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HELL-uh-koh-BAK-turpy-LOH-ree).

Bloating

(BLO-ting) Fullness or swelling in the abdomen that often occurs after meals.

Borborygmi

(BOR-boh-RIG-mee) Rumbling sounds caused by gas moving through the intestines (stomach"growling").

Bowel

(BAH-wul) Another word for the small and large intestines.

Bowel Movement

(BAH-wul MOOV-munt) Body wastes passed through the rectum and anus.

Bowel Prep

The process used to clean the colon with enemas and a special drink. Used before surgery of the colon, colonoscopy, or barium x-ray. See also Lavage.

Budd-Chiari Syndrome

(BUD kee-AH-ree sin-drohm) A rare liver disease in which the veins that drain blood from the liver are blocked or narrowed.

Bulking Agents

(BUL-king AY-jents) Laxatives that make bowel movements soft and easy to pass.

Burping

See Belching.

Calculi

(KAL-kyoo-ly) Stones or solid lumps such as gallstones.

Campylobacter pylori

(KAM-pee-loh-BAK-tur py-LOH-ree) The original name for the bacterium that causes ulcers. The new name is Helicobacter pylori. See also Helicobacter pylori.

Candidiasis

(KAN-di-DY-uh-sis) A mild infection caused by the Candida (KAN-di-duh) fungus, which lives naturally in the gastrointestinal tract. Infection occurs when a change in the body, such as surgery, causes the fungus to overgrow suddenly.

Carbohydrates

(kar-boh-HY-drayts) One of the three main classes of food and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are the sugars and starches found in breads, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. During digestion, carbohydrates are changed into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is stored in the liver until cells need it for energy.

Caroli's Disease

(kuh-ROH-leez duh-zeez) An inherited condition. Bile ducts in the liver are enlarged and may cause irritation, infection, or gallstones.

Cathartics

(kuh-THAR-tiks) See Laxatives.

Catheter

(KATH-uh-tur) A thin, flexible tube that carries fluids into or out of the body.

Cecostomy

(see-KAW-stuh-mee) A tube that goes through the skin into the beginning of the large intestine to remove gas or feces. This is a short-term way to protect part of the colon while it heals after surgery.

Cecum

(SEEK-um) The beginning of the large intestine. The cecum is connected to the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum.

Celiac Disease

(SEL-ee-ak duh-zeez) Inability to digest and absorb gliadin, the protein found in wheat. Undigested gliadin causes damage to the lining of the small intestine. This prevents absorption of nutrients from other foods. Celiac disease is also called celiac sprue, gluten intolerance, and non-tropical sprue.

Celiac Sprue

(SEL-ee-ak sproo) See Celiac Disease.

Chlorhydria

(klor-HY-dree-uh) Too much hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

Cholangiography

(koh-LAN-jee-AW-gruh-fee) A series of x-rays of the bile ducts.

Cholangitis

(KOH-lan-JY-tis) Irritated or infected bile ducts.

Cholecystectomy

(KOH-lee-sis-TEK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove the gallbladder.

Cholecystitis

(KOH-lee-sis-TY-tis) An inflamed gallbladder.

Cholecystogram, Oral

(KOH-lee-SIS-tuh-gram, OH-rul) An x-ray of the gallbladder and bile ducts. The patient takes pills containing a special dye to make the organs show up in the x-ray. Also called oral cholecystography.

Cholecystography, Oral

(KOH-lee-sis-TAW-gruh-fee) See Cholecystogram, Oral.

Cholecystokinin

(KOH-lee-sis-tuh-KY-nin) A hormone released in the small intestine. Causes muscles in the gallbladder and the colon to tighten and relax.

Choledocholithiasis

(KOH-lee-doh-koh-luh-THY-uh-sis) Gallstones in the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis

(KOH-lee-luh-THY-uh-sis) Gallstones in the gallbladder.

Cholestasis

(KOH-lee-STAY-sis) Blocked bile ducts. Often caused by gallstones.

Cholesterol

(koh-LES-tuh-rawl) A fat-like substance in the body. The body makes and needs some cholesterol, which also comes from foods such as butter and egg yolks. Too much cholesterol may cause gallstones. It also may cause fat to build up in the arteries. This may cause a disease that slows or stops blood flow.

Chronic

(KRAW-nik) A term that refers to disorders that last a long time, often years.

Chyme

(kym) A thick liquid made of partially digested food and stomach juices. This liquid is made in the stomach and moves into the small intestine for further digestion.

Cirrhosis

(suh-ROH-sis) A chronic liver condition caused by scar tissue and cell damage. Cirrhosis makes it hard for the liver to remove poisons (toxins) like alcohol and drugs from the blood. These toxins build up in the blood and may affect brain function.

Clostridium Difficile

(klaws-TRID-ee-um deef-ee-seel) Bacteria naturally present in the large intestine. These bacteria make a substance that can cause a serious infection called pseudomembranous colitis in people taking antibiotics.

Colectomy

(koh-LEK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove all or part of the colon.

Colic

(KAWL-ik) Attacks of abdominal pain, caused by muscle spasms in the intestines. Colic is common in infants.

Colitis

(koh-LY-tis) Inflammation of the colon.

Collagenous Colitis

(koh-LAH-juh-nus koh-LY-tis) A type of colitis. Caused by an abnormal band of collagen, a thread-like protein.

Colon

(KOH-lun) See Large Intestine.

Colonic Inertia

(koh-LAWN-ik ih-NUR-sha) A condition of the colon. Colon muscles do not work properly, causing constipation.

Colonoscopy

(koh-luh-NAW-skuh-pee) A test to look into the rectum and colon. The doctor uses a long, flexible, narrow tube with a light and tiny lens on the end. This tube is called a colonoscope.

Colonoscopic Polypectomy

(KOH-luh-nuh-SKAW-pik pawl-up-EK-tuh-mee) The removal of tumor-like growths (polyps) using a device inserted through a colonoscope.

Colon Polyps

(KOH-lun PAWL-ups) Small, fleshy, mushroom-shaped growths in the colon.

Coloproctectomy

(koh-loh-prahk-TEK-tuh-mee) See Proctocolectomy.

Colorectal Cancer

(koh-loh-REK-tul-CAN-sir) Cancer that occurs in the colon (large intestine) or the rectum (the end of the large intestine). A number of digestive diseases may increase a person's risk of colorectal cancer, including polyposis and Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome.

Colorectal Transit Study

(koh-loh-REK-tul TRAN-zit STUH-dee) A test to see how food moves through the colon. The patient swallow scapsules that contain small markers. An x-ray tracks the movement of the capsules through the colon.

Colostomy

(koh-LAW-stuh-mee) An operation that makes it possible for stool to leave the body after the rectum has been removed. The surgeon makes an opening in the abdomen and attaches the colon to it. A temporary colostomy may be done to let the rectum heal from injury or other surgery.

Common Bile Duct

(KAH-mun BY-ul dukt) The tube that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Common Bile Duct Obstruction

(KAH-mun BY-UL dukt ub-STRUK-shun) A blockage of the common bile duct, often caused by gallstones.

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan

(kom-PYOO-ted tuh-MAW-gruh-fee) An x-ray that produces three-dimensional pictures of the body. Also known as computed axial tomography (CAT) scan.

Constipation

(kon-stuh-PAY-shun) A condition in which the stool becomes hard and dry. A person who is constipated usually has fewer than three bowel movements in a week. Bowel movements may be painful.

Common causes of constipation  

  • Not enough fiber in diet.
  • Not enough liquids.
  • Lack of exercise.
  • Changes in life or routine such as pregnancy, older age, and travel.
  • Ignoring the urge to have a bowel movement.      
  • Problems with the colon and rectum.
  • Problems with intestinal function.      
  • Irritable bowl syndrome.      
  • Medications.

Continence

(KON-tuh-nuns) The ability to hold in a bowel movement or urine.

Continent Ileostomy

(KON-tuh-nunt il-ee-AW-stuh-mee) An operation to create a pouch from part of the small intestine. Stool that collects in the pouch is removed by inserting a small tube through an opening made in the abdomen. See also Ileostomy.

Corticosteroids

(KOR-tuh-koh-STEER-oydz) Medicines such as cortisone and hydrocortisone. These medicines reduce irritation from Crohn's Disease and ulcerative colitis. They may be taken either by mouth or as suppositories.

Crohn's Disease

(krohnz duh-zeez) A chronic form of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's Disease causes severe irritation in the gastrointestinal tract. It usually affects the lower small intestine (called the ileum) or the colon, but it can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract. Also called regional enteritis and ileitis. See also Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Granuloma.

Cryptosporidia

(KRIP-toh-spoh-RID-ee-uh) A parasite that can cause gastrointestinal infection and diarrhea. See also Gastroenteritis.

Cystic Duct

(SIS-tik dukt) The tube that carries bile from the gallbladder into the common bile duct and the small intestine.

Cystic Duct Obstruction

(ub-STRUK-shun) A blockage of the cystic duct, often caused by gallstones.

Defecation

(def-uh-KAY-shun) The passage of bowel contents through the rectum and anus.

Defecography

(def-uh-CAW-gruh-fee) An x-ray of the anus and rectum to see how the muscles work to move stool. The patient sits on a toilet placed inside the x-ray machine.

Dehydration

(dee-hy-DRAY-shun) Loss of fluids from the body, often caused by diarrhea. May result in loss of important salts and minerals.

 

Delayed Gastric Emptying

(dee-LAYD GA-strik EM-tee-ing) See Gastroparesis.

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

(dur-muh-TY-tis hur-PEH-tee-for-mis) A skin disorder associated with celiac disease. See also Celiac Disease.

Descending Colon

(dee-SEND-ing KOH-lun) The part of the colon where stool is stored. Located on the left side of the abdomen.

Diaphragm

(DY-uh-fram) The muscle wall between the chest and the abdomen. It is the major muscle that the body uses for breathing.

Diarrhea

(DY-uh-REE-uh) Frequent, loose, and watery bowel movements. Common causes include gastrointestinal infections, irritable bowel syndrome, medicines, and malabsorption.

Dietitian

(DY-uh-TISH-un) An expert in nutrition who helps people plan what and how much food to eat.

Digestants

(dy-JES-tants) Medicines that aid or stimulate digestion. An example is a digestive enzyme such as Lactaid for people with lactase deficiency.

Digestion

(dy-JES-tchun) The process the body uses to break down food into simple substances for energy, growth, and cell repair.

Digestive System

(dy-JES-tuv sis-tum) The organs in the body that break down and absorb food. Organs that make up the digestive system are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. Organs that help with digestion but are not part of the digestive tract are the tongue, glands in the mouth that make saliva, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

[Digestive System] Digestive Tract

(dy-JES-tuv trakt) See Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract.

Distention

(dis-TEN-shun) Bloating or swelling of the abdomen.

Diverticula

(dy-vur-TIK-yoo-lah) Plural form of diverticulum. See Diverticulum.

Diverticulitis

(dy-vur-tik-yoo-LY-tis) A condition that occurs when small pouches in the colon (diverticula) become infected or inflamed. Also called left-sided appendicitis.

Diverticulosis

(dy-vur-tik-yoo-LOH-sis) A condition that occurs when small pouches (diverticula) push outward through weak spots in the colon.

Diverticulum

(dy-vur-TIK-yoo-lum) A small pouch in the colon. These pouches are not painful or harmful unless they become infected or irritated.

Dry Mouth

See Xerostomia.

Dubin-Johnson Syndrome

(DOO-bun JAWN-sun sin-drohm) An inherited form of chronic jaundice (yellow tint to the skin and eyes) that has no known cause.

Dumping Syndrome

(DUM-peeng sin-drohm) A condition that occurs when food moves too fast from the stomach into the small intestine. Symptoms are nausea, pain, weakness, and sweating. This syndrome most often affects people who have had stomach operations. Also called rapid gastric emptying.

Duodenal Ulcer

(doo-AW-duh-nul UL-sur) An ulcer in the lining of the first part of the small intestine (duodenum).

Duodenitis

(doo-AW-duh-NY-tis) An irritation of the first part of the small intestine (duodenum).

Duodenum

(doo-AW-duh-num) The first part of the small intestine.

Dysentery

(DIS-un-tair-ee) An infectious disease of the colon. Symptoms include bloody, mucus-filled diarrhea; abdominal pain; fever; and loss of fluids from the body.

Dyspepsia

(dis-PEP-see-uh) See Indigestion.

Dysphagia

(dis-FAY-jee-uh) Problems in swallowing food or liquid, usually caused by blockage or injury to the esophagus.

Eagle-Barrett Syndrome

(EE-gul BAH-rut sin-drohm) See Prune Belly Syndrome.

Electrocoagulation

(ee-LEK-troh-koh-ag-yoo-LAY-shun) A procedure that uses an electrical current passed through an endoscope to stop bleeding in the digestive tract and to remove affected tissue.

Electrolytes

(ee-LEK-troh-lyts) Chemicals such as salts and minerals needed for various functions in the body.

Encopresis

(en-koh-PREE-sis) Accidental passage of a bowel movement. A common disorder in children.

Endoscope

(EN-doh-skohp) A small, flexible tube with a light and a lens on the end. It is used to look into the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, colon, or rectum. It can also be used to take tissue from the body for testing or to take color photographs of the inside of the body. Colonoscopes and sigmoidoscopes are types of endoscopes.

Endoscopic Papillotomy

(en-doh-SKAW-pik pah-pih-LAW-tuh-mee) See Endoscopic Sphincterotomy. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

(en-doh-SKAW-pikREH-troh-grayd koh-LAN-jee-oh-PANG-kree-uh-TAW-gruh-fee) A test using an x-ray to look into the bile and pancreatic ducts. The doctor inserts an endoscope through the mouth into the duodenum and bile ducts. Dye is sent through the tube into the ducts. The dye makes the ducts show up on an x-ray.

Endoscopic Sphincterotomy

(en-doh-SKAW-pik sfeenk-tuh-RAW-tuh-mee) An operation to cut the muscle between the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. The operation uses a catheter and a wire to remove gallstones or other blockages. Also called endoscopic papillotomy.

Endoscopy

(en-DAW-skuh-pee) A procedure that uses an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition.

Enema

(EN-uh-muh) A liquid put into the rectum to clear out the bowel or to administer drugs or food.

Enteral Nutrition

(EN-tuh-rul noo-TRISH-un) A way to provide food through a tube placed in the nose, the stomach, or the small intestine. A tube in the nose is called a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube. A tube that goes through the skin into the stomach is called a gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). A tube into the small intestine is called a jejunostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) tube. Also called tube feeding. See also Gastrostomy and Jejunostomy.

Enteritis

(en-tuh-RY-tis) An irritation of the small intestine.

Enterocele

(EN-tuh-roh-seel) A hernia in the intestine. See also Hernia.

Enteroscopy

(en-tuh-RAW-skuh-pee) An examination of the small intestine with an endoscope. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth and stomach into the small intestine.

Enterostomal Therapy (ET) Nurse

(en-tuh-roh-STOH-mul THEH-ruh-pee nerss) A nurse who cares for patients with an ostomy. See also Ostomy.

Enterostomy

(en-tuh-RAW-stuh-mee) An ostomy, or opening, into the intestine through the abdominal wall.

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

(EN-zym linkt IM-yoo-noh SOR-bent ASS-ay) A blood test used to find Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Also used to diagnose an ulcer.

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

(ee-oh-sin-oh-FIL-ik gah-stroh-en-tuh-RY-tis) Infection and swelling of the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine. The infection is caused by white blood cells (eosinophils).

Epithelial Cells

(eh-puh-THEE-lee-ul selz) One of many kinds of cells that form the epithelium and absorb nutrients. See also Epithelium.

Epithelium

(eh-puh-THEE-lee-um) The inner and outer tissue covering digestive tract organs.

Eructation

(ee-ruk-TAY-shun) Belching.

Erythema Nodosum

(EH-rih-THEE-muh noh-DOH-sum) Red swellings or sores on the lower legs during flareups of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. These sores show that the disease is active. They usually go away when the disease is treated.

Escherichia coli

(eh-shuh-RIK-ee-uh KOH-ly) Bacteria that cause infection and irritation of the large intestine. The bacteria are spread by unclean water, dirty cooking utensils, or undercooked meat. See also Gastroenteritis.

Esophageal Atresia  

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-uhl uh-TREEZ-ya) A birth defect. The esophagus lacks the opening to allow food to pass into the stomach.

Esophageal Manometry

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul mah-NAW-muh-tree) A test to measure muscle tone in the esophagus.

Esophageal pH Monitoring

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul pee-aytch mah-nih-tuh-reeng) A test to measure the amount of acid in the esophagus.

Esophageal Reflux

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul REE-fluks) See Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

Esophageal Spasms

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul SPAH-zumz) Muscle cramps in the esophagus that cause pain in the chest.

Esophageal Stricture

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul STRIK-sher) A narrowing of the esophagus often caused by acid flowing back from the stomach. This condition may require endoscopy or surgery.

Esophageal Ulcer

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul UL-sur) A sore in the esophagus. Caused by long-term inflammation or damage from the residue of pills. The ulcer may cause chest pain.

Esophageal Varices

(eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul VAIR-uh-seez) Stretched veins in the esophagus that occur when the liver is not working properly. If the veins burst, the bleeding can cause death.

Esophagitis

(eh-saw-fuh-JY-tis) An irritation of the esophagus, usually caused by acid that flows up from the stomach.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

(eh-SAW-fuh-goh-GAH-stroh-doo-AW-duh-NAW-skuh-pee) Exam of the upper digestive tract using an endoscope. See Endoscopy.

Esophagus

(eh-SAW-fuh-gus) The organ that connects the mouth to the stomach.

Excrete

(ek-SKREET) To get rid of waste from the body.

Extrahepatic Biliary Tree

(ek-strah-heh-PAH-tik BILL-ee-air-ee tree) The bile ducts located outside the liver.

Failure to Thrive

(FAYL-yoor too THRYV) A condition that occurs when a baby does not grow normally.

Familial Polyposis

(fuh-MIL-ee-ul pah-luh-POH-sis) An inherited disease causing many polyps in the colon. The polyps often cause cancer.

Fats

One of the three main classes of food and a source of energy in the body. Bile dissolves fats, and enzymes break them down. This process moves fats into cells.

Fatty Liver

(FAH-tee LIH-vur) The buildup of fat in liver cells. The most common cause is alcoholism. Other causes include obesity, diabetes, and pregnancy. Also called steatosis.

Fecal Fat Test

(FEE-kul fat test) A test to measure the body's ability to break down and absorb fat. The patient eats a special diet for 2 to 3 days before the test and collects stool samples for examination.

Fecal Incontinence

(FEE-kul in-KAN-tuh-nuns) Being unable to hold stool in the colon and rectum.

Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

(FEE-kul uh-KULT blud test) A test to see whether there is blood in the stool that is not visible to the naked eye. A sample of stool is placed on a chemical strip that will change color if blood is present. Hidden blood in the stool is a common symptom of colorectal cancer.

Feces

(FEE-seez) Stool.

Fermentation

(FER-mun-TAY-shun) The process of bacteria breaking down undigested food and releasing alcohols, acids, and gases.

Fiber

(FY-bur) A substance in foods that comes from plants. Fiber helps with digestion by keeping stool soft so that it moves smoothly through the colon. Soluble (SAWL-yoo-buhl) fiber dissolves in water. Soluble fiber is found in beans, fruit, and oat products. Insoluble (IN-sawl-yoo-buhl) fiber does not dissolve in water. Insoluble fiber is found in whole-grain products and vegetables.

Fistula

(FIST-yoo-luh) An abnormal passage between two organs or between an organ and the outside of the body. Caused when damaged tissues come into contact with each other and join together while healing.

Flatulence

(FLAT-yoo-lunss) Excessive gas in the stomach or intestine. May cause bloating.

Flatus

(FLAH-tus) Gas passed through the rectum.

Foodborne Illness

(FOOD-born IL-nus) An acute gastrointestinal infection caused by food that contains harmful bacteria. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills. Also called food poisoning.

Fulminant Hepatic Failure (FHF)

(FOOL-muh-nunt heh-PAT- ik FAYL-yoor) Liver failure that occurs suddenly in a previously healthy person. The most common causes of FHF are acute viral hepatitis, acetaminophen overdose, and liver damage from prescription drugs.

Functional Disorders

(FUNK-shun-ul dis-or-durz) Disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. These conditions result from poor nerve and muscle function. Symptoms such as gas, pain, constipation, and diarrhea come back again and again, but there are no signs of disease or damage. Emotional stress can trigger symptoms. Also called motility disorders.

Fungus

(FUN-gus) A mold or yeast such as Candidiasis that may cause infection.

Galactose

(guh-LAK-tos) A type of sugar in milk products and sugar beets. The body also makes galactose.

Galactosemia

(guh-LAK-toh-SEE-mee-uh) Buildup of galactose in the blood. Caused by lack of one of the enzymes needed to break down galactose into glucose.

Gallbladder

(GAWL-blah-dur) The organ that stores the bile made in the liver. Connected to the liver by bile ducts. The gallbladder can store about 1 cup of bile. Eating signals the gallbladder to empty the bile through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Gallstones

[Gallstones] (GAWL-stonz) The solid masses or stones made of cholesterol or bilirubin that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts.

Gardner's Syndrome

(GARD-nurz sin-drohm) A condition in which many polyps form throughout the digestive tract. Because these polyps are likely to cause cancer, the colon and rectum are often removed to prevent colorectal cancer.

Gas

Air that comes from normal breakdown of food. The gases are passed out of the body through the rectum (flatus) or the mouth (burp).

Gastrectomy

(gah-STREK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove all or part of the stomach.

Gastric

(GAH-strik) Related to the stomach.

Gastric Juices

(GAH-strik JOO-suz) Liquids produced in the stomach to help break down food and kill bacteria.

Gastric Resection

(GAH-strik ree-SEK-shun) An operation to remove part or all of the stomach.

Gastric Ulcer

(GAH-strik UL-sur) See Stomach Ulcer.

Gastrin

(GAH-strin) A hormone released after eating. Gastrin causes the stomach to produce more acid.

Gastritis

(gah-STRY-tis) An inflammation of the stomach lining.

Gastrocolic Reflex

(GAH-stroh-KAW-lick REE-fleks) Increase of muscle movement in the gastrointestinal tract when food enters an empty stomach. May cause the urge to have a bowel movement right after eating.

Gastroenteritis

(GAH-stroh-en-tuh-RY-tis) An infection or inflammation of the stomach and intestines. May be caused by bacteria or parasites from spoiled food or unclean water. Other causes include eating food that irritates the stomach lining and emotional upsets such as anger, fear, or stress. Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping. See also Infectious Diarrhea and Travelers' Diarrhea.

Causes of gastroenteritis

  • Bacteria
  • Escherichia coli Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Viruses
  • Norwalk virus
  • Rotavirus
  • Parasites
  • Cryptosporidia
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Giardia lamblia

Gastroenterologist

(GAH-stroh-en-tuh-RAW-luh-jist) A doctor who specializes in digestive diseases.

Gastroenterology

(GAH-stroh-en-tuh-RAW-luh-jee) The field of medicine concerned with the function and disorders of the digestive system.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

(GAH-stroh-eh-SAW-fuh-JEE-ul REE-fluks duh-zeez) Flow of the stomach's contents back up into the esophagus. Happens when the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach (the lower esophageal sphincter) is weak or relaxes when it shouldn't. May cause esophagitis. Also called esophageal reflux or reflux esophagitis.

Gastrointestinal (GI)

(GAH-stroh-in-TES-tuh-nul) Related to the gastrointestinal tract.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract

(GAH-stroh-in-TES-tuh-nul trakt) The large, muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus, where the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food. Also called the alimentary canal or digestive tract.

Gastroparesis

(GAH-stroh-puh-REE-sis) Nerve or muscle damage in the stomach. Causes slow digestion and emptying, vomiting, nausea, or bloating. Also called delayed gastric emptying.

Gastrostomy

(gah-STRAW-stuh-mee) An artificial opening from the stomach to a hole (stoma) in the abdomen where a feeding tube is inserted. See also Enteral Nutrition.

GERD

See Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

GI

See Gastrointestinal.

Giant Hypertrophic Gastritis

(JY-unt hy-pur-TROH-fik gah-STRY-tis) See Menetrier's Disease.

Giardiasis

(jee-ar-DY-uh-sus) An infection with the parasite Giardia lamblia from spoiled food or unclean water. May cause diarrhea. See also Gastroenteritis.

Gilbert Syndrome

(GIL-burt sin-drohm) A buildup of bilirubin in the blood. Caused by lack of a liver enzyme needed to break down bilirubin. See also Bilirubin.

Globus Sensation

(GLOH-bus sen-SAY-shun) A constant feeling of a lump in the throat. Usually related to stress.

Glucose

(GLOO-kohss) A simple sugar the body manufactures from carbohydrates in the diet. Glucose is the body's main source of energy. See also Carbohydrates.

Gluten

(GLOO-ten) A protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. In people who can't digest it, gluten damages the lining of the small intestine or causes sores on the skin.

Gluten Intolerance

(GLOO-ten in-TAH-luh-runs) See Celiac Disease.

Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy

(GLOO-ten SEN-suh-tiv en-tuh-RAW-puh-thee) A general term that refers to celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Glycogen

(GLY-koh-jen) A sugar stored in the liver and muscles. It releases glucose into the blood when cells need it for energy. Glycogen is the chief source of stored fuel in the body.

Glycogen Storage Diseases

(GLY-koh-jen STOR-ij duh-ZEEZ-uz) A group of birth defects. These diseases change the way the liver breaks down glycogen. See also Glycogen.

Granuloma

(gran-yoo-LOH-ma) A mass of red, irritated tissue in the GI tract found in Crohn's disease.

Granulomatous Colitis

(gran-yoo-LOH-muh-tus koh-LY-tis) Another name for Crohn's disease of the colon.

Granulomatous Enteritis

(gran-yoo-LOH-muh-tus en-tuh-RY-tis) Another name for Crohn's disease of the small intestine.

Gut

(gut) See Intestines.

H2-Blockers

(aytch-too BLAH-kurz) Medicines that reduce the amount of acid the stomach produces. They block histamine2 (HIH-stuh-min-too). Histamine signals the stomach to make acid. Prescription H2-blockers are cimetidine (suh-MEH-tuh-deen) (Tagamet), famotidine (fuh-MAH-tuh-deen) (Pepcid), nizatidine (nih-ZAH-tuh-deen) (Axid), and ranitidine (ruh-NIH-tuh-deen) (Zantac). They are used to treat ulcer symptoms. Non-prescription H2-blockers are Zantac 75, Axid AR, Pepcid-AC, and Tagamet-HB. They are for GERD, heartburn, and acid indigestion.

Heartburn

(HART-burn) A painful, burning feeling in the chest. Heartburn is caused by stomach acid flowing back into the esophagus. Changing the diet and other habits can help to prevent heartburn. Heartburn may be a symptom of GERD. See also Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

Tips to control heartburn

  • Avoid foods and beverages that affect lower esophageal sphincter pressure or irritate the esophagus lining.      
  • Lose weight if overweight.      
  • Stop smoking.      
  • Elevate the head of the bed 6 inches.      
  • Avoid lying down 2 to 3 hours after eating.
  • Take an antacid.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)

(HELL-uh-koh-BAK-tur py-LOH-ree) A spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach. H. pylori damages stomach and duodenal tissue, causing ulcers. Previously called Campylobacter pylori.

Hemochromatosis

(HEE-moh-kroh-muh-toh-sis) A disease that occurs when the body absorbs too much iron. The body stores the excess iron in the liver, pancreas, and other organs. May cause cirrhosis of the liver. Also called iron overload disease.

Hemorrhoidectomy

(HEM-roy-DEK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoids

[Hemorrhoids] (HEM-roydz) Swollen blood vessels in and around the anus and lower rectum. Continual straining to have a bowel movement causes them to stretch and swell. They cause itching, pain, and sometimes bleeding.

Hepatic

(heh-PAT-ik) Related to the liver.

Hepatic Coma

(heh-PAT-ik KOH-muh) See Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Hepatic Encephalopathy

(heh-PAT-ik en-SEF-uh-LAWP-uh-thee) A condition that may cause loss of consciousness and coma. It is usually the result of advanced liver disease. Also called hepatic coma.

Hepatitis

(heh-puh-TY-tis) Irritation of the liver that sometimes causes permanent damage. Hepatitis may be caused by viruses or by medicines or alcohol. Hepatitis has the following forms:

Hepatitis A- A virus most often spread by unclean food and water.

Hepatitis B- A virus commonly spread by sexual intercourse or blood transfusion, or from mother to newborn at birth. Another way it spreads is by using a needle that was used by an infected person. Hepatitis B is more common and much more easily spread than the AIDS virus and may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Hepatitis C- A virus spread by blood transfusion or sharing needles with infected people. Hepatitis C may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis C used to be called non-A, non-B hepatitis.

Hepatitis D (Delta)- A virus that occurs mostly in people who take illegal drugs by using needles. Only people who have hepatitis B can get hepatitis D.

Hepatitis E- A virus spread mostly through unclean water. This type of hepatitis is common in developing countries. It has not occurred in the United States.

Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin (HBIg)

(heh-puh-TY-tis BEE im-YOON-oh-GLAWB-yoo-lun) A shot that gives short-term protection from the hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis B Vaccine

(heh-puh-TY-tis BEE vak-SEEN) A shot to prevent hepatitis B. The vaccine tells the body to make its own protection (antibodies) against the virus.

Hepatologist

(HEH-puh-TAW-luh-jist) A doctor who specializes in liver diseases.

Hepatology

(HEH-puh-TAW-luh-jee) The field of medicine concerned with the functions and disorders of the liver.

Hepatotoxicity

(heh-PAT-oh-tawk-SIS-uh-tee) How much damage a medicine or other substance does to the liver.

Hernia

(HUR-nee-uh) The part of an internal organ that pushes through an opening in the organ's wall. Most hernias occur in the abdominal area.

Herniorrhaphy

(hur-nee-AWR-uh-fee) An operation to repair a hernia.

Hiatal Hernia (Hiatus Hernia)

(hy-AY-tul HUR-nee-uh) A small opening in the diaphragm that allows the upper part of the stomach to move up into the chest. Causes heartburn from stomach acid flowing back up through the opening. See also Diaphragm.

Hirschsprung's Disease

(HURSH-sprungz duh-zeez) A birth defect in which some nerve cells are lacking in the large intestine. The intestine cannot move stool through, so the intestine gets blocked. Causes the abdomen to swell. See also Megacolon.

Hormone

(HOR-moan) regulates certain organs. Hormones such as gastrin help in breaking down food. Some hormones come from cells in the stomach and small intestine.

Hydrochloric Acid

(hy-droh-KLOR-ik ASS-id) An acid made in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid works with pepsin and other enzymes to break down proteins.

Hydrogen Breath Test

(HY-droh-jen breth test) A test for lactose intolerance. It measures breath samples for too much hydrogen. The body makes too much hydrogen when lactose is not broken down properly in the small intestine.

Hyperalimentation

(HY-pur-al-uh-men-TAY-shun) See Parenteral Nutrition.

Hyperbilirubinemia

(HY-pur-bil-ee-roo-buh-NEE-mee-uh) Too much bilirubin in the blood. Symptoms include jaundice. This condition occurs when the liver does not work normally. See also Jaundice.

IBD

See Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

IBS

See Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

Ileal

(IL-ee-ul) Related to the ileum, the lowest end of the small intestine.

Ileal Pouch

(IL-EE-UL powtch) See Ileoanal Reservoir.

Ileitis

(il-ee-EYE-tis) See Crohn's Disease.

Ileoanal Anastomosis

(il-ee-oh-AY-nul AN-nuh-stuh- MOH-sis) See Ileoanal Pull-Through.

Ileoanal Pull-Through

(il-ee-oh-AY-nul PUL-throo) An operation to remove the colon and inner lining of the rectum. The outer muscle of the rectum is not touched. The bottom end of the small intestine (ileum) is pulled through the remaining rectum and joined to the anus. Stool can be passed normally. Also called ileoanal anastomosis.

Ileoanal Reservoir

(il-ee-oh-AY-nul REZ-uh-vwar) An operation to remove the colon, upper rectum, and part of the lower rectum. An internal pouch is created from the remaining intestine to hold stool. The operation may be done in two stages. The pouch may also be called a J-pouch or W-pouch.

Ileocecal Valve

(il-ee-oh-SEE-kul valv) A valve that connects the lower part of the small intestine and the upper part of the large intestine (ileum and cecum). Controls the flow of fluid in the intestines and prevents backflow.

lleocolitis

(il-ee-oh-koh-LY-tis) Irritation of the lower part of the small intestine (ileum) and colon.

Ileostomy

(il-ee-AW-stuh-mee) An operation that makes it possible for stool to leave the body after the colon and rectum are removed. The surgeon makes an opening in the abdomen and attaches the bottom of the small intestine (ileum) to it.

Ileum

(il-ee-um) The lower end of the small intestine.

Impaction

(im-PAK-shun) The trapping of an object in a body passage. Examples are stones in the bile duct or hardened stool in the colon.

Imperforate Anus

(im-PUR-fuh-rut AY-nus) A birth defect in which the anal canal fails to develop. The condition is treated with an operation.

Indigestion

(in-duh-JES-tchun) Poor digestion. Symptoms include heartburn, nausea, bloating, and gas. Also called dyspepsia.

Infectious Diarrhea

(in-FEK-shus dy-uh-REE-uh) Diarrhea caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. See also Travelers' Diarrhea and Gastroenteritis.

Infectious Gastroenteritis

(in-FEK-shus gah-stroh-en-tuh-RY-tis) See Gastroenteritis.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

(in-FLAM-uh-toh-ree BAH-wul duh-zeez) Long-lasting problems that cause irritation and ulcers in the GI tract. The most common disorders are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Inguinal Hernia

(IN-gwuh-nul HUR-nee-uh) A small part of the large or small intestine or bladder that pushes into the groin. May cause pain and feelings of pressure or burning in the groin. Often requires surgery.

Intestines

(in-TES-tinz) See Large Intestine and Small Intestine. Also called gut.

Intestinal Flora

(in-TES-tuh-nul FLOR-uh) The bacteria, yeasts, and fungi that grow normally in the intestines.

Intestinal Mucosa

(in-TES-tuh-nul myoo-KOH-zuh) The surface lining of the intestines where the cells absorb nutrients.

Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

(in-TES-tuh-nul SOO-doh ub-STRUK-shun) A disorder that causes symptoms of blockage, but no actual blockage. Causes constipation, vomiting, and pain. See also Obstruction.

Intolerance

(in-TAH-luh-runs) Allergy to a food, drug, or other substance.

Intussusception

(IN-tuh-suh-SEP-shun) A rare disorder. A part of the intestines folds into another part of the intestines, causing blockage. Most common in infants. Can be treated with an operation.

Iron Overload Disease

(EYE-urn OH-vur-lohd duh-zeez) See Hemochromatosis.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

(EER-uh-tuh-bul BAH-wul sin-drohm) A disorder that comes and goes. Nerves that control the muscles in the GI tract are too active. The GI tract becomes sensitive to food, stool, gas, and stress. Causes abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea. Also called spastic colon or mucous colitis.

Ischemic Colitis

(is-KEE-mik koh-LY-tis) Decreased blood flow to the colon. Causes fever, pain, and bloody diarrhea.

Jejunum

(juh-JOON-um) The middle section of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum.

Jejunostomy

(juh-joo-NAW-stuh-mee) An operation to create an opening of the jejunum to a hole (stoma) in the abdomen. See also Enteral Nutrition.

Kupffer's Cells

(KOOP-furz selz) Cells that line the liver. These cells remove waste such as bacteria from the blood.

 

Lactase

(LAK-tayss) An enzyme in the small intestine needed to digest milk sugar (lactose).

Lactase Deficiency

(LAK-tayss duh-FISH-en-see) Lack of the lactase enzyme. Causes lactose intolerance.

Lactose

(LAK-tohss) The sugar found in milk. The body breaks lactose down into galactose and glucose.

Lactose Intolerance

(LAK-tohss in-TAH-luh-runs) Being unable to digest lactose, the sugar in milk. This condition occurs because the body does not produce the lactase enzyme.

Lactose Tolerance Test

(LAK-tohss TAH-luh-runs test) A test for lactase deficiency. The patient drinks a liquid that contains milk sugar. Then the patient's blood is tested; the test measures the amount of milk sugar in the blood.

Laparoscope

(LAP-uh-ruh-skohp) A thin tube with a tiny video camera attached. Used to look inside the abdomen and see the surface of organs. See also Endoscope.

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

(LAP-uh-ruh-SKAWP-ik KOH-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove the gallbladder. The doctor inserts a laparoscope (see above) and other surgical instruments through small holes in the abdomen. The camera allows the doctor to see the gallbladder on a television screen. The doctor removes the gallbladder through the holes.

Laparoscopy

(LAP-uh RAW-skuh-pee) A test that uses a laparoscope to look at and take tissue from the inside of the abdomen.

Laparotomy

(LAP-uh-RAW-tuh-mee) An operation that opens up the abdomen.

Large Intestine

(LARJ in-TES-tin) The part of the intestine that goes from the cecum to the rectum. The large intestine absorbs water from stool and changes it from a liquid to a solid form. The large intestine is 6 feet long and includes the appendix, cecum, colon, and rectum. Also called colon.

Lavage

(lah-VAJ) A cleaning of the stomach and colon. Uses a special drink and enemas. See also Bowel Prep.

Laxatives

(LAK-suh-tivz) Medicines to relieve long-term constipation. Used only if other methods fail. Also called cathartics.

Lazy Colon

(LAY-zee KOH-lun) See Atonic Colon.

Levator Syndrome

(luh-VAY-tur sin-drohm) Feeling of fullness in the anus and rectum with occasional pain. Caused by muscle spasms.

Lithotripsy, Extracorporeal Shock Wave (ESWL)

(LITH-uh-trip-see, EK-struh-cor-POH-ree-ul SHAHK wayv) A method of breaking up bile stones and gallstones. Uses a specialized tool and shock waves.

Liver

(LIH-vur) The largest organ in the body. The liver carries out many important functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

Liver Enzyme Tests

(LIH-vur EN-zym tests) Blood tests that look at how well the liver and biliary system are working. Also called liver function tests.

Liver Function Tests

(LIH-vur FUNK-shun tests) See Liver Enzyme Tests.

Lower Esophageal Ring

(LOH-wur uh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul Ring) An abnormal ring of tissue that may partially block the lower esophagus. Also called Schatzki's ring.

Lower Esophageal Sphincter

(LOH-wur uh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul SFEENK-tur) The muscle between the esophagus and stomach. When a person swallows, this muscle relaxes to let food pass from the esophagus to the stomach. It stays closed at other times to keep stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

Lower GI Series

(LOH-wur jee-eye SEER-eez) X-rays of the rectum, colon, and lower part of the small intestine. A barium enema is given first. Barium coats the organs so they will show up on the x-ray. Also called barium enema x-ray.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

(mag-NEH-tik REH-zuh-nuns IM-uh-jing) A test that takes pictures of the soft tissues in the body. The pictures are clearer than x-rays.

Malabsorption Syndromes

(MAL-ub-SORP-shun sin-drohmz) Conditions that happen when the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods.

Mallory-Weiss Tear

(MAH-luh-ree-WYSS tair) A tear in the lower end of the esophagus. Caused by severe vomiting. Common in alcoholics.

Malnutrition

(mal-noo-TRISH-un) A condition caused by not eating enough food or not eating a balanced diet.

Manometry

(muh-NAW-muh-tree) Tests that measure muscle pressure and movements in the GI tract. See also Esophageal Manometry and Rectal Manometry.

Meckel's Diverticulum

(MEH-kulz dy-vur-TIK-yoo-lum) A birth defect in which a small sac forms in the ileum.

Megacolon

(MEG-uh-koh-lun) A large dilated colon that can result from chronic constipation, acute inflammatory processes, certain disease states and medications. See also Hirschsprung's Disease.

Melena

(muh-LEE-nuh) Blood in the stool.

Menetrier's Disease

(may-NAY-tree-ayz duh-zeez) A long-term disorder that causes large, coiled folds in the stomach. Also called giant hypertrophic gastritis.

Metabolism

(muh-TAH-buh-lih-zum) The way cells change food into energy after food is digested and absorbed into the blood.

Motility

(moh-TIL-uh-tee) The movement of food through the digestive tract.

Motility Disorders

(moh-TIL-uh-tee dis-or-durz) See Functional Disorders.

Mucosal Protective Drugs

(myoo-KOH-zul proh-TEK-tiv drugz) Medicines that protect the stomach lining from acid. Examples are sucralfate (soo-CRAL-fayt) (Carafate), misoprostol (MIH-soh-PROH-stawl) (Cytotec), antacids (Mylanta and Maalox), and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol).

Mucous Colitis

(MYOO-kus koh-LY-tis) See Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Mucosal Lining

(myoo-KOH-zul LY-ning) The lining of GI tract organs that makes mucus.

Mucus

(MYOO-kus) A clear liquid made by the intestines. Mucus coats and protects tissues in the GI tract.

Nausea

(NAW-zee-uh) The feeling of wanting to throw up (vomit).

Necrosis

(nuh-KROH-sis) Dead tissue that surrounds healthy tissue in the body.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

(NEK-roh-TY-zing EN-tuh-roh-koh-LY-tis) A condition in which part of the tissue in the intestines is destroyed. Occurs mainly in under-weight newborn babies. A temporary ileostomy may be necessary.

Neonatal Hepatitis

(nee-oh-NAY-tul heh-puh-TY-tis) Irritation of the liver with no known cause. Occurs in newborn babies. Symptoms include jaundice and liver cell changes.

Neoplasm

(NEE-oh-plaz-um) New and abnormal growth of tissue that may or may not cause cancer. Also called tumor.

Nissen Fundoplication

(NIH-sun FUN-doh-plih-KAY-shun) An operation to sew the top of the stomach (fundus) around the esophagus. Used to stop stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus (reflux) and to repair a hiatal hernia.

Non-tropical Sprue

(NAWN-TRAH-pih-kul SPROO) See Celiac Disease.

Non-ulcer Dyspepsia

(nawn-UL-sur dis-PEP-see-uh) Constant pain or discomfort in the upper GI tract. Symptoms include burning, nausea, and bloating, but no ulcer. Possibly caused by muscle spasms.

Norwalk Virus

(NAWR-wawk VY-rus) A virus that may cause GI infection and diarrhea. See also Gastroenteritis.

Nutcracker Syndrome

Obstruction

(ub-STRUK-shun) A blockage in the GI tract that prevents the flow of liquids or solids.

Occult Bleeding

(uh-KULT) Blood in stool that is not visible to the naked eye. May be a sign of disease such as diverticulosis or colorectal cancer.

Oral Dissolution Therapy

(OR-ul dih-soh-LOO-shun theh-ruh-pee) A method of dissolving cholesterol gallstones. The patient takes the oral medications chenodiol (KEE-noh-DY-awl) (Chenix) and ursodiol (ERS-oh-DY-awl) (Actigall). These medicines are most often used for people who cannot have an operation.

Ostomate

(AH-stuh-mayt) A person who has an ostomy. Called ostomist in some countries.

Ostomy

(AH-stuh-mee) An operation that makes it possible for stool to leave the body through an opening made in the abdomen. An ostomy is necessary when part or all of the intestines are removed. Colostomy and ileostomy are types of ostomy.

Pancreas

(PAN-kree-ahs) A gland that makes enzymes for digestion and the hormone insulin.

Pancreatitis

(PAN-kree-uh-TY-tis) Irritation of the pancreas that can make it stop working. Most often caused by gallstones or alcohol abuse.

Papillary Stenosis

(PAH-pih-lair-ee stuh-NOH-sis) A condition in which the openings of the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts narrow.

Parenteral Nutrition

(puh-REN-tuh-rul noo-TRISH-un) A way to provide a liquid food mixture through a special tube in the chest. Also called hyperalimentation or total parenteral nutrition.

Parietal Cells

(puh-RY-uh-tul selz) Cells in the stomach wall that make hydrochloric acid.

Pediatric Gastroenterologist

(pee-dee-AT-trik GAH-stroh-en-tuh-RAW-luh-jist) A doctor who treats children with digestive diseases.

Pepsin

(PEP-sin) An enzyme made in the stomach that breaks down proteins.

Peptic

(PEP-tik) Related to the stomach and the duodenum, where pepsin is present.

Peptic Ulcer

(PEP-tik UL-sur) A sore in the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Usually caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. An ulcer in the stomach is a gastric ulcer; an ulcer in the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer.

Percutaneous

(PUR-kyoo-TAY-nee-us) Passing through the skin.

Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography

(PUR-kyoo-TAY-nee-us tranz-heh-PAT-ik koh-LAN-jee-AW-gruh-fee) X-rays of the gallbladder and bile ducts. A dye is injected through the abdomen to make the organs show up on the x-ray.

Perforated Ulcer

(PUR-fuh-ray-ted UL-sur) An ulcer that breaks through the wall of the stomach or the duodenum. Causes stomach contents to leak into the abdominal cavity.

Perforation

(PUR-fuh-RAY-shun) A hole in the wall of an organ.

Perianal

(PEH-ree-AY-nul) The area around the anus.

Perineal

(PEH-rih-NEE-ul) Related to the perineum.

Perineum

(PEH-rih-NEE-um) The area between the anus and the sex organs.

Peristalsis

(PEH-ree-STAWL-sis) A wavelike movement of muscles in the GI tract. Peristalsis moves food and liquid through the GI tract.

Peritoneum

(PEH-rih-toh-NEE-um) The lining of the abdominal cavity.

Peritonitis

(PEH-rih-toh-NY-tis) Inflammation of the peritoneum.

Pernicious Anemia

(pur-NIH-shus uh-NEE-mee-uh) Anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12. The body needs B12 to make red blood cells.

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

(POYTS-YAY-gurz sin-drohm) An inherited condition. Many polyps grow in the intestine. There is little risk of cancer.

Pharynx

(FAR-ingks) The space behind the mouth. Serves as a passage for food from the mouth to the esophagus and for air from the nose and mouth to the larynx.

Polyp

(PAH-lip) Tissue bulging from the surface of an organ. Although these growths are not normal, they often are not cause for concern. However, people who have polyps in the colon may have an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

Polyposis

(PAH-lih-POH-sis) The presence of many polyps.

Porphyria

(por-FEER-ee-uh) A group of rare, inherited blood disorders. When a person has porphyria, cells fail to change chemicals (porphyrins) to the substance (heme) that gives blood its color. Porphyrins then build up in the body. They show up in large amounts in stool and urine, causing the urine to be colored blue. They cause a number of problems, including strange behavior.

Portal Hypertension

(POR-tul hy-pur-TEN-shun) High blood pressure in the portal vein. This vein carries blood into the liver. Portal hypertension is caused by a blood clot. This is a common complication of cirrhosis.

Portal Vein

(POR-tul vayn) The large vein that carries blood from the intestines and spleen to the liver.

Portosystemic Shunt

(POR-toh-sih-STEM-ik shunt) An operation to create an opening between the portal vein and other veins around the liver.

Postcholecystectomy Syndrome

(POST-koh-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-mee sin-drohm) A condition that occurs after gallbladder removal. The muscle between the gallbladder and the small intestine does not work properly, causing pain, nausea, and indigestion. Also called biliary dyskinesia.

Postgastrectomy Syndrome

(POST-gah-STREK-tuh-mee sin-drohm) A condition that occurs after an operation to remove the stomach (gastrectomy). See also Dumping Syndrome.

Postvagotomy Stasis

(POST-vay-GAW-tuh-mee STAY-sis) Delayed stomach emptying. Occurs after surgery on the vagus nerve.

Pouch

(powtch) A special bag worn over a stoma to collect stool. Also called an ostomy appliance.

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

(PRY-muh-ree BILL-ee-air-ee suh-ROH-sis) A chronic liver disease. Slowly destroys the bile ducts in the liver. This prevents release of bile. Long-term irritation of the liver may cause scarring and cirrhosis in later stages of the disease.

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

(PRY-muh-ree skluh-ROH-sing KOH-lun-JY-tis) Irritation, scarring, and narrowing of the bile ducts inside and outside the liver. Bile builds up in the liver and may damage its cells. Many people with this condition also have ulcerative colitis.

Proctalgia Fugax

(prahk-TAL-jee-uh FYOO-gaks) Intense pain in the rectum that occasionally happens at night. Caused by muscle spasms around the anus.

Proctectomy

(prahk-TEK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove the rectum.

Proctitis

(prahk-TY-tis) Irritation of the rectum.

Proctocolectomy

(PRAHK-toh-koh-LEK-tuh-mee) An operation to remove the colon and rectum. Also called coloproctectomy.

Proctocolitis

(PRAHK-toh-koh-LY-tis) Irritation of the colon and rectum.

Proctologist

(prahk-TAW-luh-jist) A doctor who specializes in disorders of the anus and rectum.

Proctoscope

(PRAHK-tuh-skohp) A short, rigid metal tube used to look into the rectum and anus.

Proctoscopy

(prahk-TAW-skuh-pee) Looking into the rectum and anus with a proctoscope.

Proctosigmoiditis

(PRAHK-toh-SIG-moy-DY-tis) Irritation of the rectum and the sigmoid colon.

Proctosigmoidoscopy

(PRAHK-toh-SIG-moy-DAW-skuh-pee) An endoscopic examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon. See also Endoscopy.

Prokinetic Drugs

(PROH-kih-NET-ik drugz) Medicines that cause muscles in the GI tract to move food.

Prolapse

(PROH-laps) A condition that occurs when a body part slips from its normal position.

Protein

(PROH-teen) One of the three main classes of food. Protein is found in meat, eggs, and beans. The stomach and small intestine break down proteins into amino acids. The blood absorbs amino acids and uses them to build and cells. See also Amino Acids.

Proton Pump Inhibitors

(PROH-tawn pump in-HIH-bih-turz) Medicines that stop the stomach's acid pump. Examples are omeprazole (oh-MEH-prah-zol) (Prilosec), lansoprazole (lan-SOH-prah-zol) (Prevacid), rabeprazole (ray-BEH-prah-zol) (Aciphex), and pantoprazole sodium (pan-TOH-prah-zol SO-dee-um) (Protonix).

Prune Belly Syndrome

(PROON bel-ee sin-drohm) A condition of newborn babies. The baby has no abdominal muscles, so the stomach looks like a shriveled prune. Also called Eagle-Barrett syndrome.

Pruritus Ani

(proo-RY-tus AY-ny) Itching around the anus.

Pseudomembranous Colitis

(SOO-doh-MEM-bray-nus koh-LY-tis) Severe irritation of the colon. Caused by Clostridium difficile bacteria. Occurs after taking oral antibiotics, which kill bacteria that normally live in the colon.

Pyloric Sphincter

(py-LOR-ik SFEENK-tur) The muscle between the stomach and the small intestine.

Pyloric Stenosis

(py-LOR-ik stuh-NOH-sis) A narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the small intestine.

Pyloroplasty

(py-LOR-oh-plah-stee) An operation to widen the opening between the stomach and the small intestine. This allows stomach contents to pass more freely from the stomach.

Pylorus

(py-LOR-us) The opening from the stomach into the top of the small intestine (duodenum).

Radiation Colitis

(ray-dee-AY-shun koh-LY-tis) Damage to the colon from radiation therapy.

Radiation Enteritis

(ray-dee-AY-shun en-tuh-RY-tis) Damage to the small intestine from radiation therapy.

Radionuclide Scans

(RAY-dee-oh-NOO-clyd skanz) Tests to find GI bleeding. Radioactive material is injected to highlight organs on a special camera. Also called scintigraphy (sihn-TIHG-ruh-fee).

Rapid Gastric Emptying

(RAH-pid GAH-strik EM-tee-ying) See Dumping Syndrome.

Rectal Manometry

(REK-tul muh-NAW-muh-tree) A test that uses a thin tube and balloon to measure pressure and movements of the rectal and anal sphincter muscles. Usually used to diagnose chronic constipation and fecal incontinence.

Rectal Prolapse

(REK-tul PRO-laps) A condition in which the rectum slips so that it protrudes from the anus.

Rectum

(REK-tum) The lower end of the large intestine, leading to the anus.

Reflux

(REE-fluks) A condition that occurs when gastric juices or small amounts of food from the stomach flow back into the esophagus and mouth. Also called regurgitation.

Reflux Esophagitis

(REE-fluks uh-SAW-fuh-JY-tis) Irritation of the esophagus because stomach contents flow back into the esophagus.

Regional Enteritis

(REE-juh-nul en-tuh-RY-tis) See Crohn's Disease.

Regurgitation

(ree-GUR-juh-TAY-shun) See Reflux. Retching. Dry vomiting.

Rotavirus

(ROH-tuh-vy-rus) The most common cause of infectious diarrhea in the United States, especially in children under age 2.

Rupture

(RUP-tchur) A break or tear in any organ or soft tissue.

Saliva

(suh-LY-vuh) A mixture of water, protein, and salts that makes food easy to swallow and begins digestion.

Salmonella

(SAH-moh-NEL-uh) A bacterium that may cause intestinal infection and diarrhea. See also Gastroenteritis.

Sarcoidosis

(SAR-koy-DOH-sis) A condition that causes small, fleshy swellings in the liver, lungs, and spleen.

Schatzki's Ring

(SHAHTS-keez ring) See Lower Esophageal Ring.

Scintigraphy

(sin-TIG-ruh-fee) See Radionuclide Scans.

Sclerotherapy

(SKLAIR-oh-THEH-ruh-pee) A method of stopping upper GI bleeding. A needle is inserted through an endoscope to bring hardening agents to the place that is bleeding.

Secretin

(suh-KREE-tin) A hormone made in the duodenum. Causes the stomach to make pepsin, the liver to make bile, and the pancreas to make a digestive juice.

Segmentation

(SEG-men-TAY-shun) The process by which muscles in the intestines move food and wastes through the body.

Shigellosis

(SHIH-geh-LOH-sis) Infection with the bacterium Shigella. Usually causes a high fever, acute diarrhea, and dehydration. See also Gastroenteritis.

Short Bowel Syndrome

(short BAH-wul sin-drohm) Problems related to absorbing nutrients after removal of part of the small intestine. Symptoms include diarrhea, weakness, and weight loss. Also called short gut syndrome.

Short Gut Syndrome

See Short Bowel Syndrome.

Shwachman's Syndrome

(SHWAHK-munz sin-drohm) A digestive and respiratory disorder of children. Certain digestive enzymes are missing and white blood cells are few. Symptoms may include diarrhea and short stature.

Sigmoid Colon

(SIG-moyd KOH-lun) The lower part of the colon that empties into the rectum.

Sigmoidoscopy

(SIG-moy-DAW-skuh-pee) Looking into the sigmoid colon and rectum with a flexible or rigid tube, called a sigmoidoscope.

Sitz Bath

(SITS bath) A person sits in a few inches of warm water to help relieve discomfort of hemorrhoids or anal fissures.

Small Bowel Enema

(smal BAH-wul EN-uh-muh) X-rays of the small intestine taken as barium liquid passes through the organ. Also called small bowel follow-through or small bowel series. See also Lower GI Series.

Small Bowel Follow-Through

(smal BAH-wul FAH-loh-throo) See Small Bowel Enema.

Small Intestine

Organ where most digestion occurs. It measures about 20 feet and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

Solitary Rectal Ulcer

(SAH-luh-tair-ee REK-tul UL-sur) A rare type of ulcer in the rectum. May develop because of straining to have a bowel movement.

Somatostatin

(SOH-muh-toh-STAH-tun) A hormone in the pancreas. Somatostatin helps tell the body when to make the hormones insulin, glucagon, gastrin, secretin, and renin.

Spasms

(SPAH-zumz) Muscle movements such as those in the colon that cause pain, cramps, and diarrhea.

Spastic Colon

(SPAH-stik KOH-lun) See Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

Sphincter

(SFEENK-tur) A ring-like band of muscle that opens and closes an opening in the body. An example is the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach known as the lower esophageal sphincter.

Sphincter of Oddi

(SFEENK-tur uv AH-dee) The muscle between the common bile duct and pancreatic ducts.

Spleen

The organ that cleans blood and makes white blood cells. White blood cells attack bacteria and other foreign cells.

Splenic Flexure Syndrome

(SPLEN-ik FLEK-shur sin-drohm) A condition that occurs when air or gas collects in the upper parts of the colon. Causes pain in the upper left abdomen. The pain often moves to the left chest and may be confused with heart problems.

Squamous Epithelium

(SKWAH-mus eh-pih-THEE-lee-um) Tissue in an organ such as the esophagus. Consists of layers of flat, scaly cells.

Steatorrhea

(STEE-ah-toh-REE-uh) A condition in which the body cannot absorb fat. Causes a buildup of fat in the stool and loose, greasy, and foul bowel movements.

Steatosis

(stee-ah-TOH-sis) See Fatty Liver.

Stoma

(STOH-muh) An opening in the abdomen that is created by an operation (ostomy). Must be covered at all times by a bag that collects stool.

Stomach

(STUH-muk) The organ between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach is where digestion of protein begins.

Stomach Ulcer

(STUH-muk UL-sur) An open sore in the lining of the stomach. Also called gastric ulcer.

Stool

The solid wastes that pass through the rectum as bowel movements. Stool contains undigested foods, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells. Also called feces.

Stress Ulcer

(STRES UL-sur) An upper GI ulcer from physical injury such as surgery, major burns, or critical head injury.

Stricture

(STRIK-sher) The abnormal narrowing of a body opening. Also called stenosis. See also Esophageal Stricture and Pyloric Stenosis.

Tenesmus

(tuh-NEZ-mus) Straining to have a bowel movement. May be painful and continue for a long time without result.

Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)

(TOH-tul puh-REN-tuh-rul noo-TRISH-un) See Parenteral Nutrition.

Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF)

(TRAY-kee-oh-uh-SAW-fuh-JEE-ul FIST-yoo-luh) A condition that occurs when there is a connection (fistula) between the trachea (wind pipe) and the esophagus. Food and saliva can pass into the trachea from the esopagus.

Transverse Colon

(TRANZ-vurs KOH-lun) The part of the colon that goes across the abdomen from right to left.

Travelers' Diarrhea

(TRAV-lurz dy-uh-REE-uh) An infection caused by unclean food or drink. Often occurs during travel outside one's own country. See also Gastroenteritis.

Triple-Therapy

(TRIH-pul THEH-ruh-pee) A combination of three medicines used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection and ulcers. Drugs that stop the body from making acid are often added to relieve symptoms.

Tropical Sprue

(TRAH-pih-kul sproo) A condition of unknown cause. Abnormalities in the lining of the small intestine prevent the body from absorbing food normally.

Tube Feeding

(TOOB feeding) See Enteral Nutrition.

Ulcer

(UL-sur) An erosion on the skin surface or on the stomach lining.

Ulcerative Colitis

(UL-sur-ay-tuv koh-LY-tis) A serious disease that causes ulcers and irritation in the inner lining of the colon and rectum. See also Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

Upper GI Endoscopy

(UH-pur jee-eye en-DAW-skuh-pee) Looking into the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with an endoscope. See also Endoscopy.

Upper GI Series

(UH-pur jee-eye SEE-reez) X-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The patient swallows barium first. Barium makes the organs show up on x-rays. Also called barium meal.

Urea Breath Test

(yoo-REE-uh breth test) A test used to detect Helicobacter pylori infection. The test measures breath samples for urease, an enzyme H. pylori makes.

Vagotomy

(vay-GAH-tuh-mee) An operation to cut the vagus nerve. This causes the stomach to make less acid.

Vagus Nerve

(VAY-gus nurv) The nerve in the stomach that controls the making of stomach acid.

Valve

(valv) A fold in the lining of an organ that prevents fluid from flowing backward.

Varices

(VAIR-uh-seez) Stretched veins such as those that form in the esophagus from cirrhosis.

Villi

(VIL-eye) The tiny, fingerlike projections on the surface of the small intestine. Villi help absorb nutrients.

Viral Hepatitis

(VY-rul heh-puh-TY-tis) Hepatitis caused by a virus. Five different viruses (A, B, C, D, and E) most commonly cause this form of hepatitis. Other rare viruses may also cause hepatitis. See Hepatitis.
Type of Mode of Transmission

Hepatitis A * Contaminated food and water. Hepatitis B * Sexual intercourse. * Sharing infected needles. Hepatitis C * Sharing infected needles. Hepatitis D * Must have hepatitis B. * Found mainly in intravenous drug users. Hepatitis E * Contaminated water from poor sanitation.

Volvulus

(VAHLV-yoo-lus) A twisting of the stomach or large intestine. May be caused by the stomach being in the wrong position, a foreign substance, or abnormal joining of one part of the stomach or intestine to another. Volvulus can lead to blockage, perforation, peritonitis, and poor blood flow.

Vomiting

(VAH-muh-ting) The release of stomach contents through the mouth.

Watermelon Stomach

(WAH-tur-MEH-lun STUH-muk) Parallel red sores in the stomach that look like the stripes on a watermelon. Frequently seen with cirrhosis.

Wilson's Disease

(WIL-sunz duh-zeez) An inherited disorder. Too much copper builds up in the liver and is slowly released into other parts of the body. The overload can cause severe liver and brain damage if not treated with medication.

Xerostomia

(ZEE-roh-STOH-mee-uh) Dry mouth. The condition can be caused by a number of things, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, kidney failure, infection with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), drugs used to treat depression, and radiation treatment for mouth or throat cancer.

Zenker's Diverticulum

(ZEN-kurz dy-vur-TIK- yoo-lum) Pouches in the esophagus from increased pressure in and around the esophagus.

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

(ZAH-lun-jur EL-uh-sun sin-drohm) A group of symptoms that occur when a tumor called a gastrinoma forms in the pancreas. The tumor, which may cause cancer, releases large amounts of the hormone gastrin. The gastrin causes too much acid in the duodenum, resulting in ulcers, bleeding, diarrhea, and perforation.

Clinical Research

Gastro One is proud to have a dedicated clinical research department with over 10 years of experience in performing clinical trials. Most trials test the safety and efficacy of new investigational medicines. Our trials usually involve treatments for Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, fatty liver, cirrhosis, hepatitis C, gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

Our research center has a full-time staff of fully trained clinical research coordinators and nurses who participate in continuing education programs and maintain certification with the Association of Clinical Research Professionals. Our center is also supervised by board-certified gastroenterologists with training, expertise and credentialing in clinical research. Our research facility is located at our Germantown Endoscopy Center.

Frequent Questions/Answers

Why volunteer for a trial?

Participation in a clinical study is a voluntary process. Clinical research is essential for discovering new information and new treatments for many medical conditions. Taking part in a trial allows you to play a role in the discovery of treatments and cures for your medical condition. In addition to potentially helping others suffering from the disease state, participating in a trial gives volunteers the opportunity to access investigational treatments before they are widely available.

What to expect as a study volunteer?

Informed consent is obtained at the beginning of any clinical trial. You will be able to review the consent form, discuss it with the study team, and learn why the study is being done and what to expect from the trial. You can ask any questions about the study or the study- related testing and procedures, including questions about parts of the consent form that you did not understand. You can also ask questions about possible side effects from the actual treatment proposed. If you decide to participate in the trial, you will need to sign the consent form. Even after signing the consent form, you can still change your mind and stop participating in the study at any time.

After you agree to participate, you will need to undergo a screening evaluation to ensure that you are actually eligible for the study itself. This evaluation usually consists of a detailed review of your medical history, a complete physical examination and various laboratory tests. Some studies require X-ray or endoscopic testing as part of the initial evaluation. The clinical trial visits start after you are found to be eligible.

Is it safe to participate?

Patient safety is always a priority during clinical trials. All trials involve some form of risk, as is the case with almost any medical or therapeutic intervention. The risks during clinical trials are minimized as much as possible with the following steps: All trials are performed following discussion and consultation with the Food and Drug Administration. Investigational drugs undergo rigorous pre-clinical laboratory, toxicologic and animal testing before consideration for clinical studies. Studies also have to be approved and monitored by an independent ethics committee called an Institutional Review Board. Your health will also be closely monitored during the study to ensure your safety and to monitor your progress.

Do I have to pay for any part of the trial?

Clinical studies are usually funded by medical societies, the federal government or private industries. The medical care, including the cost of the testing, visits and study medication, is provided for free during most of our studies. Some studies also pay the volunteers a small fee for their participation.

How do I get additional information about studies available at Gastro One?

Additional resources have been supplied at the bottom of the page.

For additional questions, please contact:

Amanda Berry, NP, CCRC (901) 309-6035 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Additional Resources: 

  • www.clinicaltrials.gov: Provides information about clinical research and about clinical trials related to various diseases. It also has a registry of trials, and patients can search for studies based on illness or location.
  • www.centerwatch.com: Has a national and international listing of clinical trials in all therapeutic areas.
  • www.fda.gov/forpatients/clinicaltrials: Plain-language description of clinical trials and why people volunteer to participate. Also offers interactive patient education tutorial on clinical trials.
  • www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/resources/clinical-trials: Provides additional information on trials available for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Recognizing Emergencies

How do you tell the difference between a true emergency and a minor problem? Certain symptoms are so alarming that the need for emergency care -- or even an ambulance -- is obvious. But what should you do about more common illnesses and injuries? Only a doctor can diagnose medical problems. But you can protect your family's health by learning to recognize certain symptoms and knowing which symptoms to watch for.

According to the American College of Emergency Physicians, the following are warning signs of medical emergencies:

  • Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath
  • Chest or upper abdominal pain or pressure
  • Fainting
  • Sudden dizziness, weakness or change in vision
  • Change in mental status (such as unusual behavior, confusion, difficulty waking)
  • Sudden, severe pain anywhere in the body
  • Bleeding that won't stop after 10 minutes of direct pressure
  • Severe or persistent vomiting
  • Coughing up or vomiting blood
  • Suicidal or homicidal feelings

You should also be familiar with the symptoms of common illnesses and injuries. Talk to your regular doctor before you have an emergency. Ask what you should do if you think someone in your family needs emergency care, such as:

  • Should you call the doctor's office first?
  • Should you go straight to the emergency department?
  • What should you do when the doctor's office is closed?

Many other factors, including the time of day, other medical problems or state of mind, can make an otherwise minor medical problem an “emergency.” Trust your instincts. If you are alarmed by unusually severe symptoms that you believe could be an emergency, it's best to seek care.

GI Testing Options

Colon cancer diagnosis, prevention and screening are very important parts of our practice, as is screening for esophageal cancer in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett’s esophagus.

For our patients’ convenience, we have seven out-patient offices in the Mid-South.

We also have three endoscopic centers, two in Germantown and one in north Mississippi, in which we perform most of our endoscopic procedures. These centers are equipped with the latest HD-video endoscopic equipment to aid us in rapid and accurate diagnosis of your problems. In addition, we offer capsule endoscopy and long tube enteroscopy to assist in diagnosing disorders of the small intestine. We also perform Bravo pH testing for assessment of GERD.

We have privileges at the following hospitals in the Mid-South: Baptist East, Baptist DeSoto, Methodist Germantown, Methodist North, Methodist University, and St. Francis Park.

Abdominal Angiograph 
Abdominal Ultrasound                
Abdominal X-ray             
Colonoscopy
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Abdomen             
Contrast X-rays of the Digestive System        
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangipancreatography           
Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS)          
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
Modified Barium Swallow 
Needle Biopsy  
Occult Blood in Stool   
Radionuclide Scanning of the Liver, Gallbladder, or Stomach     
Paracentesis      
pH Study     
Sigmoidoscopy

GI Health Resources

Gastroenterological Medical Links

Celiac Disease

Colon Cancer

Crohn's and Colitis

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)

Colon Cancer Screening

Colorectal cancer is a common medical problem in the United States, with approximately 150,000 new cases diagnosed each year, and is responsible for about 50,000 deaths each year. This happens despite the fact that colorectal cancer is not only curable with early diagnosis but is also preventable through the detection and removal of precancerous colon polyps.

Why screen?

Screening saves lives. Unfortunately, colorectal cancers often do not cause symptoms until they are advanced and hard to treat. Screening can save lives by detecting the cancers at earlier stages when the cancers are still treatable. When the cancer is detected early, the cure rate exceeds 90%.

Most colorectal cancers start out as small growths called “adenomatous polyps.” These polyps can grow over a period of several years before some of them eventually turn into cancer. A screening colonoscopy can identify these polyps and remove them before they turn into cancer.

There is extensive evidence that colorectal cancer screening can save lives, and screening is endorsed unanimously by medical societies, including the American Cancer Society. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer has been slowly declining in the United States over the past decade. Most experts believe that this is the result of increased screening. Unfortunately, our tri-state area has one of the lowest screening rates in the United States, and, as a consequence, the incidence of colorectal cancer and the mortality rate are among the highest in the nation.

Who should be screened?

Average-risk individuals need to start screening at the age of 50 years. Recent studies have shown that African-Americans are more likely to develop colorectal cancer at a younger age and should start screening at the age of 45 years.

If you have a close relative with colorectal cancer or polyps or you suffer from inflammatory bowel disease, your risk for colorectal cancer may be higher than average, and you may need to start screening earlier. Make sure to speak to your doctor or to contact us if you think you are at a higher risk.

Why colonoscopy for screening?

There are many tests available for colorectal cancer screening. The tests include fecal occult testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy, barium enema, stool DNA testing, virtual colonoscopy and colonoscopy. The American College of Gastroenterology states that a quality colonoscopy is the preferred strategy for colorectal cancer screening. This is based on the rationale that colonoscopy is the most effective test for detection and removal of colon polyps.

Why choose Gastro One?

All of our physicians are fellowship-trained in gastroenterology and are experts at the performance of colonoscopy and polypectomy. Our out-patient endoscopy centers are equipped with state-of-the-art technology, including high-definition, wide-angle magnifying colonoscopes and high-definition screens. Coupled with our training and expertise, these technological advances ensure that the colonoscopy is performed at the highest possible standards.

As a matter of fact, our data shows that our doctors exceed colonoscopy performance benchmarks. In our screening program, 28% of the patients have had at least one precancerous polyp removed and about one in 200 is diagnosed with colon cancer, usually still at an early stage. Our center also provides anesthesia services to ensure that the colonoscopy is performed in a comfortable setting.

Gastro One also has developed an open access screening program that bypasses the preliminary office visit for a discussion of colorectal cancer screening. You may be eligible for this program if you do not have any current symptoms such as blood loss or change in bowel habits and if your primary care physician refers you for screening. For more information on our colorectal cancer Open Access screening program, please contact us at 901.309.6033 or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Colon cancer screening is very important to gastroenterologists. At Gastro One, we perform colonoscopy, which is the gold standard for colon cancer screening. Our open access program has been utilized by thousands of healthy patients whose primary physicians have recommended that they have a colonoscopy. Of these patients, 28% has precancerous polyps and about one in 200 has colon cancer. Colonoscopy for colon cancer screening is a recommended procedure by the American Cancer Society for Caucasian individuals of average risk who are over 50 and African-Americans over age 45. If you are at increased risk because of race or family history, a colonoscopy may be recommended at an earlier age.

What We Do

The physicians and staff of Gastro One specialize in the treatment of all gastrointestinal disorders, including disorders of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Nutritional problems such as weight loss and malabsorption are also within the scope of our practice.

Among the more common conditions we diagnose and treat are: esophagitis/GERD, esophageal strictures, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gallbladder attacks, pancreatitis, celiac disease, colitis of all types, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, hepatitis, fatty liver and gastrointestinal cancers.

Among the more common symptoms we see and evaluate are: heartburn and reflux, painful swallowing, difficulty swallowing, chest pain, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, change in bowel habit, abdominal swelling, blood in the stool, jaundice, low blood count, weight loss and abnormal liver tests.

READY TO GET STARTED?

The first step is to request an appointment.

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Administrative Office
2020 Exeter Road
Germantown, TN 38138
P: 901.682.1233
F: 901.682.0044

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